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Seperating Cyclohexane And Toluene By Distillation Understanding Perceptual Sets

903 words - 4 pages

Seperating cyclohexane and toluene by distillationAim: Separate two miscible liquids, either by macroscale or microscale process, using simple and fractional distillation. Compare the efficiencies of simple and fractional distillation.Introduction:The purpose of this experiment is to learn how to separate two miscible liquids by microscale process. There will be use of simple and fractional distillation. Simple and fractional distillation efficiencies will be compared. The student should have knowledge of how to measure volumes of chemical compounds. In addition, the student should know how to make a bent-tip pasture pipette for microscale distilltions.Distillation is commonly used in chemistry when compounds need to be seperated because of their differences in their boiling points. Many organic compounds are volatile. Meaning they have high vapor pressures and low boiling points. During distillation, volatile compounds are heated to a boiling in container known as a pot. The vapors produced are colled and reliquefied by passing them through a water cooled condenser. They are then collected in seperated container called the receiver. This technique is used to remove a volatile solvent from a non-volatile product, seperating volatile product from impurities, or to separate two or more volatile compounds with adequate difference in boiling points` When liquid is placed in container, some of the molecules evaporate into unoccupied space inside the container. Evaporation continues until there is equilibrium between the molecules leaving and entering the liquid. The pressure exerted by these gaseous molecules on the walls of the container is the equilibrium vapor pressure. The magnitude of this pressure depends on the physical properties of the compound and temperature increasesLiquid is converted to vapor more rapidly by boiling than evaporating. If the heating rate is increased. The temperature of the boiling liquid does not change, but the rate at which vapor is produced from the liquid increasesTable of content:
Cyclohexane

Identifiers

CAS number

110-82-7

Properties

Molecular formula

C6H12

Molar mass

84.16 g/mol

Density

0.779 g/ml, liquid

Melting point

6.55 °C (279.55 K)

Boiling point

80.74 °C (353.74 K)

Solubility in water

Immiscible

Viscosity

1.02 cP at 17 °C

Thermochemistry

Std enthalpy of formation ΔfH o298

-156 kJ/mol

Std enthalpy of combustion ΔcH o298

-3920 kJ/mol

Hazards

MSDS

External MSDS

EU classification

Flammable (F) Harmful (Xn) Dangerous for the environment (N) Severe eye irritant, may cause corneal clouding

R-phrases

R11, R38, R65, R67, R50/53

S-phrases

(S2), S9, S16, S25, S33, S60, S61, S62

Flash point

-20 C

Related Compounds

Related cycloalkanes

Cyclopentane Cycloheptane

Related compounds

Cyclohexene Benzene

Supplementary data page

Structure and properties

n , εr, etc.

Thermodynamic data

Phase...

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