Hepatitis is a medical condition defined by the inflammation of the liver and characterized by the presence of inflammatory cells in the tissue of the organ. The name is from the Greek hêpar (ἧπαρ), the stem of which is hēpat- (ἡπατ-), meaning of the liver, and suffix -itis, meaning "inflammation"  hepatitis virus have A, B C and D types.
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the most prevalent cause of human liver disease [4,5]. hepatitis B varies among individuals but the most frequent symptom is the alteration of scleroproteins and
nausea caused by the increase of total bilirubin levels and malfunction of the liver cells, respectively [6, 7]. Investigations have reported that a lot of individuals ...view middle of the document...
HBsAg is the surface antigen of the hepatitis B virus (HBV). It indicates current hepatitis B infection. It is present in the sera of patients with viral hepatitis B (with or without clinical symptoms).
The hepatitis C virus belongs to the genus Hepacivirus a member of the family Flaviviridae. Until recently it was considered to be the only member of this genus. However a member of this genus has been discovered in dogs-canine hepacivirus There is also at least one virus in this genus that infects horses. Several additional viruses in the genus have been described in bats and rodents.
The hepatitis C virus particle consists of a core of genetic material (RNA), surrounded by an icosahedral protective shell of protein, and further encased in a lipid (fatty) envelope of cellular origin. Two viral envelope glycoproteins, E1 and E2, are embedded in the lipid envelope .
Hepatitis C virus has a positive sense single-stranded RNA genome. The genome consists of a single open reading frame that is 9600 nucleotide bases long .
HCV have the Structural proteins include Core protein, E1 and E2; nonstructural proteins include NS2, NS3,NS4A, NS4B, NS5A, and NS5B.
Transmission way of HBV are direct blood-to-blood contact ,unprotected sex unsterile needles from an infected woman to her newborn during the delivery process.
At the beginning HBV infection is asymptomatic by the time the pateint have Appetite loss Fatigue, low fever, muscle and joint aches, Nausea and vomiting, Yellow skin and dark urine.
Patients with thalassemia are at risk of viral infection such as hepatitis because they receive high volumes of transfused blood and its components .
1. "Online Etymology Dictionary". Etymonline.com. Retrieved 2012-08-26.
2. Harbeth, S., Szucs, T., Berger, K, and Jilga. W. 2000. The economic burden of hepatitis B in Germany. Eur. J Epidemul, 16 (2) 173-177 .
3. Revised WHO position paper on hepatitis B vaccine, Oct 2009 - the abridged version - (draft 22 Sept 2009).
4. Yuen MF, Lee CK, Wong DK, Fung J, Hung I, Hsu A, et al. Prevalence of occult hepatitis B infection in a highly endemic area for chronic hepatitis B: a study of a large blood donor population. Gut. 2010;59(10):1389-93.
5. Arababadi MK, Pourfathollah AA, Jafarzadeh A, Hassanshahi G.Serum Levels of IL-10 and IL-17A in Occult HBV-Infected South-East Iranian Patients. Hepat Mon. 2010;10(1):31.
6. Yoshikawa A, Gotanda Y, Minegishi K, Taira R, Hino S, Tadokoro K, et al. Lengths of hepatitis B viremia and antigenemia in blood donors: preliminary evidence of occult...