Learning Theories and Instructional Strategies
The lessons contained in this unit of instruction were based upon Madeline Hunter’s Seven Steps of Lesson Plan Formatting. This lesson plan format is a proven effective means for delivering instruction. When designing lessons, the teacher needs to consider these seven elements in a certain order since each element is derived from and has a relationship to previous elements. It should be noted that a lesson plan does not equal one class period. Throughout the course of the lesson, it may take multiple sessions before the student is ready to independently practice the skills learned. Anticipated lesson duration is included with each lesson plan provided in this instructional unit. Madeline Hunter’s Seven Steps of Instruction includes stating the objectives, anticipatory set, teacher input, modeling, checking for understanding, guided practice, and independent practice (Hunter, 2004). For the purpose of this instructional unit, input and modeling have been condensed into a streamlined event; as well has, checking for understanding and guided practice. This form of lesson planning is preferred within the Elkin City Schools district and lends itself to the creation of engaging lessons.
Before the lesson is prepared, the teachers must have a clear understanding of the objectives of the lesson to be taught. By having an understanding of what they students will able to accomplish at the end of the lesson, the content remains focused and thorough. The teacher must then express these objectives to the students including the standards for performance. Students can then be held accountable for expectations that are known.
The anticipatory set is often called the “hook” of the lesson. During this stage of instruction, the teacher may utilize many research based strategies that helps to gain the student’s attention. These actions or statements by the teacher must relate the experiences of the students to the objectives of the lesson. Students are then more likely to be receptive to the material, thus igniting learning.
The next streamlined stage includes the teacher input and modeling. This includes the delivery of the information needed for the students to gain the knowledge or skill through lecture, film, tape, video, picture, or other forms of presentation. During this presentation, the teacher models the material through examples of what is expected as an end product of their work. Multiple research based teaching strategies should be implemented during this stage to keep learners interested and challenged to reach a higher level of understanding of new materials.
Before proceeding to the final stage of instruction, teachers must determine if students have reached a firm level of understanding. It is important that students are able to practice doing the task correctly. During this stage, formative assessment strategies are utilized in order to determine if any re-teaching...