Sex And Defence As Modes Of Discourse

907 words - 4 pages

According to Paul Simpson, author of, ‘On the Discourse of Satire: Towards a Stylistic Model of Satirical Humour,’ the successful projection of satire must accomplish “simultaneously a number of humorous functions” (p. 4). In the introduction to his argument, Simpson states that satire as discourse should be understood “as a level of language organization that supersedes that of the sentence and as a type of meaning potential that arises out of the interaction between text and context” (p.1). The juxtaposition that Simpson describes here between text and context, indicates how satire as a literary tool relies heavily on both interpretation and topicality; whereby, satirical references must entertain current, local and relatable interests of its’ audience, so that the significance of what is being said is not lost. Simpson’s argument is constructed around what is called the ‘model of humour’ (Ziv 1988: 225; see also Ziv 1984), which describes five functions as being the key elements of humour: the sexual, the defensive, the aggressive, the social and the intellectual function. There are three, however, deemed by Simpson as being, “most directly relevant to satirical discourse:” (p.3) the aggressive, the social, and the intellectual. By extracting from Ziv’s model of humour only three of the five elements— overlooking the sexual and defensive functions in satirical discourse—Simpson’s overall argument that “satire is multi-functional in character” is weakened. By examining the works of classic satirists Sheridan, Pope, and Swift, who readily engage with the sexual and defensive functions of satirical discourse, it becomes apparent that Simpson overlooks the strengths of the sexual and defensive functions. The works of these authors alone contradict Simpson’s argument that the aggressive, the social and the intellectual modes are most relevant to satirical discourse.

Though Simpson elaborates on the three functions deemed most relevant in satirical discourse, he dismisses the significance of both the sexual and defensive by
amalgamating, what he proposes, are their functions. He states that,
of these categories, the sexual function, where laughing about sex is seen as a way of dealing with the topic in a socially acceptable way, is probably better classed as a subcategory of the defensive mode, given that the function accommodates the use of humour to deal with a whole range of “anxiogenic” or difficult topics” (p.3).

This is the only reference Simpson makes toward both the defensive and sexual functions throughout his introduction on satirical discourse. He downplays the importance of the sexual function, implying that if it were not for the defensive function there would be no need to employ a sexual mode of discourse to begin with. Simpson subjects the sexual and defensive functions to a sort of dependent push-and-pull relationship, unlike the aggressive, the social, and the intellectual functions, which receive significant and...

Find Another Essay On Sex and Defence as Modes of Discourse

The Complementarity of Scientific and Religious Modes of Understanding Reality

3174 words - 13 pages innate to human life; unsurprisingly, these impulses are the driving force behind both scientific and religious explorations. The means that facilitate such explorations are fundamentally alike as well: both science and religion are system-driven, with an emphasis on unflagging action in the pursuit of greater understanding. Finally, both scientific and religious modes of understanding inexorably return to a common set of recurrent themes

The Characteristics of Bipolar Disorder and Modes of Treatment

986 words - 4 pages Bipolar disorder (manic-depression) is a neurological disorder influencing mood. Without treatment, people afflicted by this disorder demonstrate extreme emotional fluctuations throughout their lives. Yet despite (or perhaps as a result of) the unusual intensity of the bipolar emotional roller coaster, many people with this disorder have been widely regarded as leaders and high achievers in a variety of fields of endeavor. A closer look at

Symptoms and Modes of Infection of Bacillus Anthracis

1937 words - 8 pages outbreaks in Europe and the United States. It is also being considered for bioterrorism (Sweeney, 2011). Symptoms of the early stages of anthrax can be misunderstood for less lethal conditions (Hicks, 2012). For patients with a possible anthrax infection can be determined by gram positive staining. It can also be diagnosed by confirmatory testing, such as PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) (Sweeney, 2011). PCR focuses on certain DNA strands for

Discourse Analysis: PowerPoint as a Form of Communication

2760 words - 11 pages taken for granted as sites such as Facebook and Twitter allow family and friends, as well as complete strangers, to communicate instantaneously. Different modes of communication excel at delivering specific types of communication. Twitter, while immediate, limits users to 140 characters in messages. Cell phones allow users to communicate in words and pictures, but calls involving large numbers of users become unwieldy. Various products

Overpopulation and Its Modes of Persuasion; a Rhetorical Analysis

1404 words - 6 pages organizations make use of various persuasive strategies to accomplish their goals. Specifically, this paper seeks to explore, analyze and to attempt to understand the reasoning behind the choices each of these two organizations have made in their uses of the Aristotelian modes of persuasion known as Ethos, Pathos and Logos. In faded crimson text, a counter in the upper left corner of the website of the “Population Institute” ticks off to infinity. Bold

Government and Politics - Crisis of Development Discourse

1664 words - 7 pages and "modernization."  As a result, an entire genre of academic research emerged:  the development discourse. The aim of development discourse was to chart out patterns of growth (which were based on the historical successes of the West) that newly independent countries could use, primarily to escape vicious cycles of poverty, famine, etc.    The birth of development discourse was inherently one-sided.  The impetus for development

Discourse: The Balance and Recognition of Change

631 words - 3 pages Discourses may be defined as socially constructed and recognised ways of doing and being in the world, which integrate and regulate ways of acting, thinking, feeling, using language, believing and valuing” (Lankshear, 1994, p. 6) Discourse can be considered as a standerdized approach to thinking, a sort of social boundary illustrating what can be taught about specific topics. Discources affect our veiws and diffrent discources can put a

Feminism and Cultural Relativism in Human Rights Discourse: Sex-determination Test in India

3130 words - 13 pages Feminism and Cultural Relativism in Human Rights Discourse: Sex-determination Test in India ABSTRACT: Feminists and cultural relativists are highly critical of human rights even if their criticisms have taken two diametrically opposed sides. This has created a conflict between the two groups. In this paper, I summarize the views of feminists and cultural relativists and then show that there are many similarities between them despite their

Perceived Erotic Value of Homosexuality and Sex-Role Attitudes as Mediators of Sex Differences in Heterosexual College Students'

6668 words - 27 pages Perceived Erotic Value of Homosexuality and Sex-Role Attitudes as Mediators of Sex Differences in Heterosexual College Students' Research on attitudes toward lesbians and gay men commonly shows that heterosexual women hold similar attitudes toward members of the two groups, whereas heterosexual men hold more negative attitudes toward gay men than toward lesbians. We tested the hypothesis that one reason for this sex difference is that

Sex as a Means of Agency

1243 words - 5 pages Sex as a Means of Agency “A woman’s harder to conquer than any beast, than fire, and no panther is quite so ferocious.” (Aristophanes 1058) Life for an Athenian woman was marked by her daily occupation to the household and its occupants. This was the sphere of life where she was able to exert the most power and maintain a certain degree of agency. Her domestic duties included attendance to her husband, and his sexual needs. In the

Business’s choice of entry modes in international market and its advantages and disadvantages

2095 words - 9 pages paper were to figure out modes of entry in foreign market and to critically evaluate their advantages and disadvantages, the objectives have been fulfilled. Although there was limit number of research and as a result generalization cannot be made, this report cannot conclude that there exists a best choice of entry mode for a particular businesses when they decide to internationalize, plus each advantage and disadvantage mentioned in part two of the paper cannot be used for all enterprises, they may be contrasting for separate industries.

Similar Essays

Social Presence And Modes Of Communication

1338 words - 5 pages We will first discuss the concept of social presence and its relationship to modes of communication. Following we will discuss the literature examining the use of video feedback to establish instructor social presence. Social Presence and Modes of Communication Historically, social presence has been closely related to the mode of communication used. Short, Williams, and Christie (1976) originally defined social presence as “the degree of

The Future Of Corporal Chastisement As A Defence

1244 words - 5 pages In South Africa it is still legal for parents to make use of corporal punishment in order to discipline their children. The reason therefore is that a defence exists in South African common-law for parents when a claim based on assault is raised. This defence is known as reasonable disciplinary chastisement and it is seen as ‘n ground of justification. Physical assault, such as corporal chastisement is seen as unlawful. In the following

History Of The Australian Defence Force And The Defence Force Academy

939 words - 4 pages The legal age for enlistment in the Australian Defence Force is 17 years of age, with parental consent (“Australia”, CIA.gov). In 2011, the ADF consisted of over 80,000 full-time and part-time personnel, according to the Australian Bureau of Statistics. Women have served in the Australian military since the Second World War; at the time, each branch established a separate, all female sector (Dennis, 605). The Royal Australian Air Force was the

An Early Feminist: An Essay In Defence Of The Female Sex

881 words - 4 pages opportunity to education. (Jones ,1990). Works Cited. Smith, Hannah. "Abstract: English 'Feminist' Writings and Judith Drake's An Essay in Defence of the Female Sex (1696)." The Historical Journal. Cambridge University Press, 2001. 18 December 2006 . Devereaux, Johanna “Affecting the Shade”: Attribution, Authorship, and Anonymity in An Essay in Defence of the Female