Intro: Organic chemistry is the scientific study of the structure of organic compounds. This includes the properties of the compounds and what occurs during chemical reactions. The structure of these compounds is found through analysing the results of Ultra violet spectroscopy. There have been many famous chemists over time who have made some ground breaking discoveries. None more so than R.B Woodward who almost single handily revolutionised the field of organic chemistry, winning a Nobel Prize in 1965 for his work on organic synthesis.
Organic chemistry is important in many aspects of science, such as medicinal, polymer and biochemistry as well as a material science. Organic compounds have ...view middle of the document...
The formula shows that for an alkene there are double the number of the hydrogen atoms to carbon atoms. For example figure 3 shows the structure of ethane, showing the double bond between the adjacent carbon atoms. With this double bond being present, allows alkenes to react in different ways to alkanes. One of the most important reactions that alkenes can do is react with oxygen so can be used as combustion fuels. However their main use in modern society, is they can be used to make ethanol which leads to alcohol.
Aromatic hydrocarbons are hydrocarbons with at least one aromatic ring and are often referred to as arenes. These aromatic rings are known as the compound of benzene. The name of this section of hydrocarbons comes from the fact that they have strong, pungent aromas. The source of the arenes’ attractive smell is due to the ring of benzene. Benzene is important as it is used largely in modern society in the production of most smelling products, both pleasant and unpleasant.
Background of Benzene: Benzene is a clear liquid with a sweet smelling aroma. It can be formed due to natural processes such as volcanic eruptions but its main creation is due to humans. It is a widely used chemical in modern world industry as it is a major component of gasoline. It was discovered in 1825 by Michael Faraday by isolating it from the oily residue found in London’s street lamps. In 1865 another chemist known as Kekule developed a theory of a ringed structure for benzene. The idea came to him in a dream he had, where he dreamt of how a snake would appear if it was trying to grab its own tail. This dream helped form a new understanding of how aromatic compounds occur and was thought as revolutionary.
Benzene is an organic hydrocarbon with the molecular formula C6H6. It is composed as shown in figure 1, with 6 carbon atoms joined in a ring, with 1 hydrogen atom attached to a solitary corresponding carbon atom. The ring is in a hexagonal shape. Each carbon atom in the hexagonal ring has four electrons to share. This causes each carbon atom to 4 bonds. One of these bonds goes to the hydrogen atom and one each to the two closest atoms of carbon. This leaves one free bond, which is used to form a double bond with one of the carbons atoms nearest neighbour. This is why Benzene is drawn with alternating double bonds and single bonds. X ray diffraction shows that the six carbon- carbon bonds are the same length, as predicted by Kekule, at 140 picometers. This length is an intermediate distance of the length of a single and a double bond.
Benzene in drugs: Many drugs contain a ring of benzene or a derivative of benzene, which is where one or more of the hydrogen atoms in benzene is replaced by another molecule. These drugs can be both beneficial and detrimental to the health of the user. Pain relievers are an important drug and many of the main pain relievers have these benzene derivatives.
An example of this is Aspirin. Aspirin thins the blood which reduces...