Short Answer Essay

1236 words - 5 pages

Q1. Describe the mechanics of inspiration and expiration in a resting person.
The direct power of pulmonary ventilation is the gap between pulmonary pressure and atmospheric pressure, and this pressure gap is from the respiratory movement. The contractions of the diaphragm and the external intercostal muscles perform the inspiration movement in a normal resting person. When the diaphragm contracts, the diaphragmatic dome moves down, which will result in the vertical diameter of the thorax enlargement (Marieb & Hoehn, 2013). Moreover, the ribs and the sternum move up when the external intercostal muscles contracts, at the same time, the lower edge of the ribs flips outward and it will ...view middle of the document...

When a person is exercising or doing activities, the content of carbon dioxide gas will increase or the content of oxygen inhaled will decrease, this can be defined as vigorous breathing. Forces inspiratory movement requires not only more contraction of the diaphragm and the external intercostal muscles, but also auxiliary inspiratory muscles which include sternocleidomastoid, pectoralis and back muscles will participate in the contraction in order to further expand the thorax and inhale more air. Besides the diastolic of the diaphragm and the external intercostal muscles, it also needs the contraction of the internal intercostal muscles and the abdominal muscles for the forces expiration for the purpose of the further shrink of the thorax; the further increase of the pulmonary pressure and exhale more air (Ellis, 2011). The power of pulmonary ventilation is from the gap between pulmonary pressure and atmospheric pressure that is from the respiratory movement. The contraction and diastolic of the respiratory muscles will lead to the expand and shrink of the thorax, because of the negative pressure make the pleural cavity and lungs associated together, the lungs will follow the changes of the thorax to change (Costanzo, 2011). The lung can expand and shrink due to the vigorous breathing, because the lung is elastic and it also relate to the pleural cavity. Parietal pleura and the lungs surround the potential closed cavity; normally there is no air in the pleural cavity, but there are some serous fluids that can help lubricate the two layers of pleural and the cohesion of serous molecular can make the lungs and thorax very close to each other. The negative pressure in the pleural cavity can make the lungs maintain to the expended state, and the lungs can follow by the movement of thorax to expend or shrink. The lungs have elastic recoil force, in a limit condition, the more the lungs are expended and the more elastic recoil force they get.
Q3Describe any four normal age-related changes to the anatomy and physiology of the respiratory system in healthy elderly adults (over 65 years)
1.The most significant change in the thorax is the barrel-shaped chest, which is the increase of the anteroposterior diameter in thorax, the diameter becomes smaller and the ratio of the anteroposterior diameter and the diameter increase. This is due to the degeneration of the spine and osteoporosis; the compressed of the vertebrae front is bigger than thoracic kyphosis (Saxon, 2010). Once people turn old, the trend of the bone change to moving forward horizontally instead of moving from the top of the back towards the bottom of the front obliquely. The upper intercostal space becomes wider, and it will cause the upper lung lobe becomes bigger.

2. According to Saxon, 2010, the elders will...

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