Short Answer Essay

1236 words - 5 pages

Q1. Describe the mechanics of inspiration and expiration in a resting person.
The direct power of pulmonary ventilation is the gap between pulmonary pressure and atmospheric pressure, and this pressure gap is from the respiratory movement. The contractions of the diaphragm and the external intercostal muscles perform the inspiration movement in a normal resting person. When the diaphragm contracts, the diaphragmatic dome moves down, which will result in the vertical diameter of the thorax enlargement (Marieb & Hoehn, 2013). Moreover, the ribs and the sternum move up when the external intercostal muscles contracts, at the same time, the lower edge of the ribs flips outward and it will ...view middle of the document...

When a person is exercising or doing activities, the content of carbon dioxide gas will increase or the content of oxygen inhaled will decrease, this can be defined as vigorous breathing. Forces inspiratory movement requires not only more contraction of the diaphragm and the external intercostal muscles, but also auxiliary inspiratory muscles which include sternocleidomastoid, pectoralis and back muscles will participate in the contraction in order to further expand the thorax and inhale more air. Besides the diastolic of the diaphragm and the external intercostal muscles, it also needs the contraction of the internal intercostal muscles and the abdominal muscles for the forces expiration for the purpose of the further shrink of the thorax; the further increase of the pulmonary pressure and exhale more air (Ellis, 2011). The power of pulmonary ventilation is from the gap between pulmonary pressure and atmospheric pressure that is from the respiratory movement. The contraction and diastolic of the respiratory muscles will lead to the expand and shrink of the thorax, because of the negative pressure make the pleural cavity and lungs associated together, the lungs will follow the changes of the thorax to change (Costanzo, 2011). The lung can expand and shrink due to the vigorous breathing, because the lung is elastic and it also relate to the pleural cavity. Parietal pleura and the lungs surround the potential closed cavity; normally there is no air in the pleural cavity, but there are some serous fluids that can help lubricate the two layers of pleural and the cohesion of serous molecular can make the lungs and thorax very close to each other. The negative pressure in the pleural cavity can make the lungs maintain to the expended state, and the lungs can follow by the movement of thorax to expend or shrink. The lungs have elastic recoil force, in a limit condition, the more the lungs are expended and the more elastic recoil force they get.
Q3Describe any four normal age-related changes to the anatomy and physiology of the respiratory system in healthy elderly adults (over 65 years)
1.The most significant change in the thorax is the barrel-shaped chest, which is the increase of the anteroposterior diameter in thorax, the diameter becomes smaller and the ratio of the anteroposterior diameter and the diameter increase. This is due to the degeneration of the spine and osteoporosis; the compressed of the vertebrae front is bigger than thoracic kyphosis (Saxon, 2010). Once people turn old, the trend of the bone change to moving forward horizontally instead of moving from the top of the back towards the bottom of the front obliquely. The upper intercostal space becomes wider, and it will cause the upper lung lobe becomes bigger.

2. According to Saxon, 2010, the elders will...

Find Another Essay On Short Answer

Short Answer Questions on Foreign Policy

831 words - 4 pages Question #3: Looking at the last 6 months, what issues have defined our foreign policy in the Middle East. This should be an action-based assessment. What interests do these policy points serve and why? The Palestinian-Israeli conflict has been an issue that definitely defined The U.S. foreign policy in the Middle East. Israel is an ally of the U.S. that receives a lot of foreign aid from the states. It’s a priority for the U.S. to protect Israel

Short Answer Essays on Collective Labour Law

1970 words - 8 pages obligation to supply to any person on request. The trade union provides different services to their members, their main functions are to negotiation and bargaining with employers when their members are unhappy with their pay, workers' terms and conditions. They also provide training of short courses to help members with their careers, or change in jobs. Most trade unions provide a telephone helpline for members who have any questions. Trade

Short-Answer Responses to Catch-22

1275 words - 6 pages each soldier comes near their mission quota, everyone is in the service for life. Early in the novel, Yossarian tries to escape serving missions by hiding out in the hospital, his usual ailment being “a pain in his liver just short of being jaundice.” (3) No matter how he (or anyone, for that matter) tries to escape serving missions, he will always be found sane by the laws of Catch-22 and the Colonel will eventually raise the number of missions

Short-Answer Responses to Into Thin Air

1279 words - 6 pages Considering the circumstances of the expedition, Jon Krakauer, the author, goes through significant character change. When contacted by Outside Magazine to write a story about Everest, Krakauer shows great enthusiasm toward the endeavor, saying yes “without even pausing to catch my breath” (26). When he reached the summit, Krakauer “just couldn’t summon the energy to care,” (5) showing his lost enthusiasm and eagerness to get off of Everest. At

Intertextuality Short Answer question essay on "Fortress" and "After the last death"

1150 words - 5 pages other reasons, and in both books the guardian was meant to be male but in the last second the terrorist found out that this small detail had changed.6)What other texts have you read that have helped you to make meaning of this novel? Illustrate your answer with specific details from both texts."Fortress" has a lot of section in it that are spent climbing up mountains, and a large percentage of action happens in the caves and the mountains

How is Voice Employed In "Tradition. Truth and Tomorrow" - English - Short Answer

1601 words - 7 pages to be the main purpose of the short story ‘School’ The purpose of the short story ‘School’ is to show the isolation and struggles of a young country boy sent away from his home on the farms and forced to live in a completely different and unknown lifestyle of the city. 2. Identify the various narrative elements of the short story and their function at each point, as in the same sample response to ‘A Family Man’. Relate their function to the

Write a short piece about your own social identity. Drawing on this, answer the following question: 'Critically evaluate the claim that 'collective social identities are both inclusive and exclusive'

4321 words - 17 pages '.(Giddens, 2001 p.247)Some sociologists would agree that ethnicity stresses some sort of cultural distinctiveness. What concerns me is that if ethnicity stresses cultural distinctiveness then we would all be classified with this label. The answer to my own question is not. In Britain it is most often associated with minority groups only as:'A population whose members believe that in some sense they share common descent and a common cultural heritage

riddles

2816 words - 12 pages (68) Iceberg (69) Duck tape (70) Nothing End of answers (71) Sand + Net + bikini = (Click here to get the answer) (72) I walk for hundreds of miles, and I never forget. What am I? (Click here to get the answer) (73) Hearing something unexpected or touching a live wire can have this effect. (Click here to get the answer) (74) I am tall when I am new and short when I am used What am I? (Click here to get the answer) (75) Say my name and desapire

Ap Biology notes

1003 words - 4 pages ____ are to protons.Answer - c - glycosidic linkages; polypeptide linkages.5) Which of the following statements concerning unsaturated fats are true?Answer - b - They have double bonds in the carbon chains of their fatty acids.6) The structural level of a protein least affected by a disruption in hydrogen bonding is theAnswer - d - quaternary level.7) Which of the following pairs of base sequences could form a short stretch of a normal double helix of

Tests & Stress

758 words - 4 pages 40 questions and I have five minutes left but I’ve only answered one-fourth of the questions. I will then become a little worried that I will not get done with the test. As far as when taking short answer or essay tests I will become stressed and overwhelmed. Short answer and essay tests/quizzes are my least favorite tests to take. I have a few regular tests coming up, but the next big test(s) I have coming up are both of my finals. I have one

Analyzing The Cask of Amontillado - Assignment

827 words - 4 pages What does the structure of this short story say about Montresor’s perception of the events in the story? Answer: The story is narrated 50 years after the event took place from Montresor perspective. The audience Montresor is telling the story to is not defined. The story which was told from the first person allows the reader to believe and trust the description of Montresor. If the story was turned around and was told from Fortunato's

Similar Essays

Short Answer Essay

902 words - 4 pages Sometimes many people get the words sympathy and empathy mixed up a bit. I can definitely understand why this is true. For quite a while I didn’t know there was even a word such as empathy simply because I heard the word sympathy so much. According to Schwartman (2010), “empathy and sympathy are not the same” (p. 38). Empathy is the ability to understand how someone feels because you can imagine what it is like to be them, whereas sympathy is a

Ps Short Answer Essay

981 words - 4 pages Waking up the Words “Knowledge without goodness is dangerous. Goodness without knowledge is weak.” I stood on top of a two story ramshackle building constructed out of old freight containers, the scent of rotting plastic roaring in my nose, and surveyed the blackened waters, vibrating colors and constant contrasts of Mumbai. So began my three weeks in India. I could wax on about how the dark alleys that make up the roads of a Mumbai

Section 2 Saq Questions For Ap World History Ap World History Short Answer Questions

2293 words - 10 pages Julia Starczewski Section II: Short Answer Questions 2/1/18 1) a) One significant change or development in cultural practice and technology was a consequence of trade and cross cultural exchange prior to 600 c.e. The spread of rice and cotton from South Asia to the Middle East encouraged changes in farming and irrigation techniques because some of these crops needed to be grown in different climates and with different techniques needed to grow

World War 2 Short Answer Assessment

1056 words - 5 pages 1. The American and European response to German and Japanese acts of aggression were justified and fair. For instance, when Japan invades and moves into Manchuria and Vietnam the United States puts an embargo on steel and oil in order to stop Japanese imperialism which was justified and fair because the United States can choose who to trade with.. Also when the Germans invaded Poland with blitzkrieg or “lightning war”, Britain and France