Sickle Cell Anemia And Red Blood Cell Physiology, Annotated Bibliography

1027 words - 5 pages

Austin McMahon
Dr. Grace
BIO 401
Assignment 1:
Sickle Cell Anemia and Red Blood Cell Physiology

Sickle cell anemia is a disorder in which the body makes crescent-shaped red blood cells. Normal red blood cells are disc-shaped. They move easily through your blood vessels and contain an iron rich protein called hemoglobin. This protein carries oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body. Sickle cells contain abnormal hemoglobin due to a mutation in the hemoglobin chain. This type of hemoglobin is known as sickle hemoglobin or hemoglobin S. Sickle hemoglobin is what distorts red blood cells into a sickle shape. Sickle cells are sticky and less elastic than normal red ...view middle of the document...

The paper concludes that deoxygenated cells have much less elasticity and that sickle hemoglobin is increasing the rigidity of the abnormal red blood cells.

Fisseha, Demeke. “Analysis of Mechanical Behavior of Red Cell Membrane in Sickle Cell Disease”. [Internet] 2012. [cited 2014 May 24] Available from:

Fisseha describes how red blood cell membranes can determine rheological properties of normal red blood cells and sickle cells. The rate of deformation of a red blood cell was examined mathematically in order to define abnormal cell rheology behavior. This paper describes that behavior changes are due to the polymerization process of sickle hemoglobin upon being deoxygenated. Mathematical expressions are made to predict the elastic properties of normal and sickle red blood cells. Differences in osmotic behavior between the cells are also identified using the Van’t Hoff Law.

Francheschi, Lucia. “Pathophysiology of Sickle Cell Disease and New Drugs for Treatment”. Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases. [Internet] 2009. [cited 2014 May 25] Available from:

This paper evaluates the pathophysiology of sickle cell disease. Dehydrated red blood cells are the proximate cause of the disease. This condition is associated with a reduction in cell ions, water content, oxygen levels, phospholipids, and red blood density. Hemoglobin S causes persistent membrane damage to the red blood cells, which is actually what makes the cell become rigid and distorted, and eventually destroyed. The paper focuses on prevention methods and the use of agents, such as nitric oxide and nitric oxide-related compounds to reduce sickle cell dehydration. It concludes that more research is needed to find a therapeutic efficient drug.

Baker, Toni. “Low Levels of Oxygen, Nitric Acid Worsen Sickle Cell Disease”. [Internet] 2014 March 20 [cited 2014 May 25] Available from:

This article explains that a decrease in both oxygen and nitric oxide can severely worsen sickle cell disease....

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