Sigmund Freud is considered one of the most influential figures in modern psychology. He is best known as the father of psychoanalysis. He developed several important theories of personality, including the theories of mind, the id, the ego, and the superego, life and death instincts, psychosexual development, and defense mechanisms. He also published many books that helped shape psychology into what it is today.
Sigismund Schlomo Freud was born in Moravia, Czech Republic on May 6, 1856, to Jakob and Amalia Freud. His parents quickly moved their family to Vienna, Austria, where Freud would grow up. He was considered his mother’s favorite of 8 children, a fact that he ...view middle of the document...
Freud published over 320 books, articles, and essays over his lifetime. His most important works were Studies on Hysteria (1895), The Interpretation of Dreams (1900), The Psychopathology of Everyday Life (1901), Three Essays on the Theory Of Sexuality (1905), Totem and Taboo (1913), Introduction to Psychoanalysis (1917), The Future of an Illusion (1927), and Civilization and its Discontents (1930).
His first major book, Studies on Hysteria, written by Freud and Josef Breuer, was published in 1895. This book details their case studies on hysterics. It includes the famous case of Anna O., which was the first case that made psychoanalysis relevant as a form of therapy. There are two different viewpoints outlined in this book: Breuer attributes hysteria to neurophysiological causes, while Freud believes that hysterics are caused by psychological issues. They also discuss the method of catharsis in this book.
The Interpretation of Dreams (1900) discusses Freud’s theory of the unconscious and how it relates to dream interpretation. He states in this book that dreams are all attempts by the subconscious to resolve a previous or present conflict in one’s life. It discusses possible meanings of our dreams, and how they relate to our past and our childhood issues.
His book The Psychopathology of Everyday Life (1901) laid down the basis for his theory of psychopathology. He studies differences from the norms of people’s everyday behavior. Freud concludes that everyone is slightly neurotic, and deviations from normal human behavior can affect everyday life routines, such as eating, sexual relations, regular work, and interpersonal communication. This book goes into various reasons and explanations why people forget everyday things such as names and words.
Freud’s Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality (1905) discusses how his theory of sexuality relates to childhood. This book covers sexual perversions, childhood sexuality, and puberty. It also states his thoughts on the Oedipus complex.
Totem and Taboo (1913) applies psychoanalysis to the fields of archaeology, anthropology, and religion. Totemism is a system of belief in which each human is thought to have a spiritual connection or a kinship with another physical being, such as an animal or plant, often called a "spirit-being" or "totem." This book was important because Freud connected psychoanalysis to other fields than psychology.
The Future of an Illusion (1927) discusses Freud’s views of religion. Freud had negative views of religion, and he believed that it is an illusion. He also discusses his psychoanalysis of religion.
Freud’s Civilization and its Discontents (1930) outlines his thoughts on tensions between the individual and society. He writes about how civilization came to be. He discusses the individual’s desire to be free and to be able to do what they want, and society pushing back and trying to make the individual conform to society’s standards.