Sigmund Freud, Alfred Adler, C.J. Jung And William James

2030 words - 8 pages

Sigmund Freud, Alfred Adler, C.J. Jung and William James were all brilliant and diverse theorists who made vast contributions to the science of psychological studies. These brilliant minds fueled the psychological studies of future theorists with their contrasting theoretical approaches and discoveries. At times, they collaborated to formulate concepts and understandings but separated because of conceptual disputes. Freud’s psychoanalysis theory was at the epicenter of some studies but these men in their individuality contributed their own theoretical concepts and developed their own schools of thought from Jung’s analytical psychology, Adler’s independent school of psychotherapy, James’s theory of emotion and Freud’s psychoanalytical theory. The study of the mind is ongoing as society evolves and adapts, whereby creating new mental processes to analyze and understand. Their contributions to the psychological school of thought continue to be embraced by many modern day psychologists.
Sigmund Freud was an Austrian neurologist who developed the discipline of psychoanalysis, theories about the unconscious mind, repression and verbal psychotherapy a method of treating psychopathology through verbal dialogue between patient and psychoanalyst. The principles of psychoanalysis therapy are human behavior; experience and cognition are determined by innate and irrational drives that are mainly unconscious. He believed bringing those irrational drives to awareness meet psychological resistance in the form of defense mechanism.
An individual’s developed is determined by events that occurred during childhood and any conflict between the conscious and unconscious. He believed nothing an individual does is because of chance and every action is motivated by the unconscious and this is how our personality relates to pathology. According to Goodwin (2008) “Well-known Freudian concepts developed in his later years. These include his structural analysis of personality into Id, Ego, and Superego, and his description between anxiety, and ego defense mechanism” (pg 422).
Freud’s structure of personality theory divides the mind into three parts, the Id, which centers on desires, pleasures, primal impulses, or urges. The Ego, which is concerned with the conscious, the moral, rational, and is self-aware. The Super-ego, the censor of the Id, which enforces the moral code of the Ego. He believed the Ego and Super-ego are both partly conscious and unconscious. His “structural theory” of the Id, Ego and Super-ego was detailed in the book, The Ego and the Id when Freud revised his earlier theory of mental functioning and believes repression is one of many defense mechanisms and it occurs to reduce anxiety. Freud reasons the conflict between the drive and superego as the cause of anxiety which is the root cause that inhibits mental functions, such as an individual’s intellect. Identification, rationalization and projection are three other defense mechanisms...

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