Sigmund Freud's Life And Contributions To The Field Of Psychology

1175 words - 5 pages

A. Sigmund Freud
B. Biography
Sigmund Freud was born on May 6, 1856, in Freiberg, Moravia, a small town in Austro-Hungarian. His parents were Amalia and Jacob Freud. His father was an industrious wool merchant with a happy and witty personality. His mother was a cheerful and vivacious woman. He was one of nine siblings. He was the first-born child of Amali and Jacob; however, two male siblings where from his father’s first marriage. When he was a young boy, his family moved to Vienna where he lived most of his life. At the age of twenty-six, he fell madly in love with Martha Bernays when she was visiting one of his sisters. Shortly thereafter, they married and had six children of their own three boys and three girls. His children describe him as a loving and compassionate man.

During his lifetime, Freud published eight books. The first book was an untitled monograph on cocaine, published in 1884. Then 1895 he published Studies on Hysteria with Breuer. In 1900, Freud wrote The Interpretation of Dreams, followed by the book The Psychopathology of Everyday Life in 1901. In 1905, Freud wrote Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality. Then Freud took some time off. In 1920, he published Beyond the Pleasure Principle, which introduced his concept of the death instinct. Three years later, he published The Ego and the Id. His final work, Civilization and It’s Discontents was published in 1929, ten years prior before his death of lung cancer.
One of Freud’s major research accomplishments was his findings on infant sexuality also known as the Psychosexual Stages. The first stage is the oral stage which is 0-1 years of age. This is the stage where sensual/sexual life begins, in the form of sucking the thumb, biting, and breast sucking. Fixation in this stage could lead someone to becoming a smoker. Freud must have thought that of himself because he smoked cigars. (Sharon Heller Freud A to Z pp 56-57) The next stage is the anal stage. When a child begins toilet training, usually 2-3 years old, parents should not pressure the child in this stage. When the child is ready, he will start to use the toilet or go behind a bush on his own this is usually 2-3 year old. (Sharon Heller Freud A to Z p. 58) In this stage, the child’s sexual pleasure is when he or she has a bowel movement. Then, when a boy is 4-5 years old, the phallic stage begins, which is when a boy discovers he has something that girls do not have. At this stage is when boys start messing around with their genital area. Mothers, especially Victorian mothers, were shocked if they caught their boy fondling his genital. “Perhaps she even threatens to cut off his genital or to have the father do it.” (Sharon Heller Freud A to Z p 45) The boy may not believe the threats until he sees a girl. Girls at this stage usually have genital envy. Following the phallic stage, there is the latency stage, which is six thru 12 years of age. At this stage, the child’s sexual urges are put on hold due...

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