Sigmund Freud’s Psychoanalysis Therapy
Albert Ellis’ Rational Emotive Therapy
Dr. Pam Cingel
PSY 420 Theories of Personality
16 April 2014
Sigmund Freud and Albert Ellis are widely recognized as two of the most influential psychotherapists of the twentieth century. “It is argued that the striking differences in their therapeutic systems, Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy (REBT) and psychoanalysis, respectively, are rooted in more fundamental theoretical differences concerning the essential nature of client personality” (Ziegler 75). This paper will discuss in detail, both Sigmund Freud’s Psychoanalytical Therapy and Albert Ellis’ Rational Emotive Therapy, as well as compare and contrast both theories.
Sigmund Freud believed that adults seduced children and this is where their problems came up in adulthood. As for all things, many people did not agree with Freud’s theory. “Freud believed that people could be cured by making conscious their unconscious thoughts and motivations, thus gaining insight” (McLeod, “Psychoanalysis”). According to Freud’s Psychoanalytical Theory, there are three elements of personality the id, ego and superego. The id is an individual’s inner child.
He believed everyone is born with the id. All humans when they are babies, according to Freud, are pleasure seeking and concerned with having their needs met. This is the original or unconscious personality. The ego is where decision-making occurs, judgments are made and memory is stored. Lastly, the superego contains the individual’s values, beliefs, and morals, which they get from their parents. According to Freud, women get their morals and beliefs from their mothers and men get it from their fathers. He also believes that an individual’s values are formed by age six.
Furthermore, Freud believes that humans go through five psychosexual stages of development. The following stages are listed below:
Oral Stage (Birth to 1 year)- The stage in infancy where infants rely completely on their caretakers and where the trust versus mistrust occurs. “If fixation occurs at this stage, Freud believed the individual would have issues with dependency or aggression, oral fixation can result in problems with drinking, eating, smoking, or nail biting” (Cherry, Freud's Stages of Psychosexual Development).
Anal Stage (Age 2-3)- This is the toilet training period. During this stage the child begins to learn bladder control. According to Freud, how parents approach this period in a child’s life will affect the child’s temperament. “Parents who utilize praise and rewards for using the toilet at the appropriate time encourage positive outcomes and help children feel capable and productive” (Cherry, Freud's Stages of Psychosexual Development). But if toilette training doesn’t go well, this can result in negative outcomes resulting in either an anal expulsive personality or an anal retentive personality. An anal expulsive personality is when the individual...