Significant People During the Industrial Revolution
As the Industrial Revolution was occurring, numerous changes were occurring. Workers were not receiving fair treatment. They were working long hours and getting paid very little money. The working class felt that they were not receiving equal treatment and equal pay for what they were offering to society. Yet some individuals, such as the owners of companies, were profiting from this movement. But the inequalities that existed caused Marx, along with Engels, to write the Communist Manifesto. Karl Marx was a man who “urged workers to vindicate the simple laws of morals and justice, which ought to govern the relations of private individuals, as the rules paramount of the intercourse of nations”.[i] After Marx wrote the document, other people were moved by this call for a change with revolution and decided to act upon their feelings that supported the document’s concepts.
Rosa Luxemburg was a Marxist who responded to the concept of revolution. She was in prison at the time when she wrote a pamphlet on the Russian Revolution. She believed that the revolution needed to defend itself in order to survive. Luxemburg stresses her argument and acts responsibly toward the evils of society:
“Her fundamental belief was twofold: that ‘the only effective means in the hands of the proletarian revolution’ were ‘the kindling of revolutionary idealism, which can be maintained over any length of time only through the intensively active life of the masses themselves under conditions of unlimited political freedom’; and that under such conditions-above all ‘general elections…unrestricted freedom of press and assembly …a free struggle of opinion’-the ‘active participation of the masses' would lead to a socialist future”.[ii]
She believed self-transforming, self-educating, and self-correcting revolutionary mass action was effective. She wanted to see the differing classes among society disappear yet some people saw the dividing lines among individuals and not being able to disappear. [iii] She was promoting an autonomous government where people were able to make decisions. Luxemburg herself was trying to push her own individualistic ideas which is autonomy. Luxemburg called Karl Kautsky “the official guardian of the temple of Marxism”. Kautsky had always believed in:
“the parliamentary road to socialism, in democratic freedoms and civil liberties, pluralism of parties, periodic elections, and the use of violence only as a last resort against those who refused to accept a legally constituted socialist majority government”. [iv]
This belief of his supports Marxism rather than just expressing an opinion. The fact that the dictatorship of the proletariat was power with a rule that was unhindered by law upset Kautsky. He saw this as “un-marxist”. Without law, individuals would be placed in divisions existing among the differing classes of society.
Lenin was a theorist...