Reading is not just reading words on a paper. It is a process that uses many resources in the brain and the use of strategies. Teachers have to use all six areas of reading to help students learn how to read, what strategies to use when reading, how to interpret a text and many more. Reading is a complex process and this paper will describe the six areas of reading.
Comprehension is the purpose of reading. Comprehension is the process of constructing meaning from a given text and applying that to the students background knowledge.
Comprehension is not about understanding the main idea of a text. Many factors come into play when trying to comprehend a text. There are five components to comprehension that includes:
• Reader and the text- this is where a student is actively engaged in the reading and can be making connections to their experience and activating prior knowledge.
• Text complexity- this involves students being able to read fiction and nonfiction texts at grade level independently. As well as being able to read these texts and understand them without any assistance.
• Background knowledge- a student having knowledge about the world and literature this helps the student make connections with old knowledge to new knowledge.
• Vocabulary- it is very difficult to understand a given text if a student is stopping at every other word because a student does not know those words. This is a very critical component and will be discussed later in this paper.
• Fluency- the ability to read a given text fluently with one or none mistakes as quickly and efficiently as possible. Fluent readers are able to use more cognitive resources to comprehension.
Teachers can use the following strategies/ activities to help with comprehension like making personal connections, drawing inferences, predicting what will happen next, monitoring and self-monitoring.
Students with good comprehension skills have good vocabulary knowledge, fluency, focus/attention, and motivation whether it is intrinsic or extrinsic.
Oral language is the ability to use sounds in order to make words to convey meaning.
Children who enter school with good verbal skills and a good literacy foundation will begin reading and writing quicker than peers who have not been exposed. Oral language is very important. Developing oral language is done at home and it starts at birth. Babies makes sounds and eventually those sounds make words which then become sentences and beyond.
The first stage to reading (and most crucial) is the Emergent stage. This is from birth to five to six years of age. Children usually say their first words between 12-18 months of age. Complex sentences are at usually four to four and half years of age. During this stage, children must begin to use words to communicate. Children also learn print awareness-awareness for certain everyday memorable items like grocery lists, magazines, and iconic...