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Skinner's Theory Of Operant Conditioning Essay

1156 words - 5 pages

acquisition rate is how long does it take for the reinforcer o teach a certain organism such as animals to behave in a certain way. Rate of response is an instant reaction that the organism would behave when given food or something that help the organism to do the task that reinforcer wanted. Extinction is a when the organism stop to behave in a certain way when the reinforcer decided to stop given the reinforcement to that particular organism.
Primary reinforcement, secondary reinforcement, and generalized reinforcement are the main three types of reinforcement. Primary reinforcement is the basic needs of human such as water, oxygen, food, and shelter. This reinforcement is natural and ...view middle of the document...

In Skinner's opinion, he believes that in order to understand the certain organism's behavior, one must begin to take a look of the initial action and the final event. He is famous for his contribution to effect of reinforcement on responses and role of operant conditioning in learning.
Skinner is the founder of operant conditioning and he breaks it down into three types of behavior. Neutral operant do not increase or decrease the possibility of repeated behavior. Reinforces is increasing the chance of repeated behavior and it can be both positive and negative. On the other hand, punishers are reducing the chance of repeated behavior and it also can be both positive and negative. One way Skinner demonstrates his theory of positive reinforcement is to use a rat in his experiment. When the rat hits the lever by an accident, food would fall down within the box. Therefore, the rat learns that repeated the same behavior helps it to obtain food. This experiment helps the rat to understand the action of hitting lever means food would fall down every time.
Skinner explains that this behavior must be reinforced several times until the rat learns how to use the lever to obtain food. In fact, this represents an example of positive reinforcement. In this case, the reward is the food that seduces the rat to hit the lever, and so it increases the chance of the rat to hit the lever to get more food. Likewise, negative reinforcement also enhances the chance of the behavior of a living organism. Negative reinforcement also improve the chance of repeated behavior, it gets rid of the negative side effect. The word "negative" that skinner used in term of context means to get rid of unwanted objects. Skinner also uses the experiment of the rat to show his theory of negative reinforcement. The rat learns that whenever it hits the lever, the electric shock would stop. Therefore, the rat learns to associate the action of hitting lever with lifesaver. Through several trials, the rat would hit the lever every time when there is a electric shock involved. On top of that, skinner adds an additional lesson to the rat's experiment to see if switching off the light can affect the outcome of the rat's behavior. When there is light on, the rat would be shocked by the electric shock. When the light is off, then the rat would not be shocked. The final experiment explains that the rat would learn to switch the lever when there is a...

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