Types of Speech Errors
Garrett (1975) represented four characteristics of slips of the tongue. The first one is that the exchange exists between linguistic units of the same positions. For example, initial linguistic segments are replaced by another initial linguistic segment. The same generalization is applied to the middle and final linguistic segments. Additionally, slips appear in similar phonetic units. This means that that the consonants are replaced by consonants and vowels are replaced by vowels. Furthermore, the slips occur in similar stress patterns, which signify that stressed syllables are replaced by stressed syllables and unstressed syllables are replaced by unstressed ...view middle of the document...
195). For example, a speaker said: “do you reel feally bad?” instead of saying, “feel really bad.” Here, the sound [f] in “feel” is replaced by [r] in “real.” At the same time, the sound [r] in “really” is replaced by the sound [f] in “feel” (Harely, 2001, p. 377).
Anticipation occurs “when a later segment takes place of an earlier one. They differ from shifts in that the segment that intrudes on another also remains in its correct location and thus is used twice” (Carroll, 2007, p. 195 ). A speaker said, “John dropped his cuff of coffee” instead of saying” cup” of coffee. Here the later sound [f] takes the place of the earlier sound [p] (Fromkin, 1973, p.218).
In contrast with anticipation, perseveration errors occur when an earlier linguistic unit takes the place of a later linguistic unit. For example, a speaker said, “he pulled a pantrum” while he wanted to say “tantrum.” Here the earlier sound [p] takes the place of the later sound [t] (Carroll, 2007, p. 195 ).
Additions mean that the speaker added an incorrect linguistic segment. For example, a speaker said “clarefully enough” while he wanted to say “carefully enough.” Here the speaker added the sound [l] after the sound [k] (Carroll, 2007, p. 195 ).
Deletions exist when a speaker deletes linguistic material (Carroll, 2007, p. 195 ). For example, a speaker said “in a slit second” while he meant “in a split second.” Here the sound [p] is deleted from the word “spilt” (Fromkin, 1973, p. 220).
Substitutions are found in the replacement of one linguistic segment by another. In contrast with other types of slips, in substitutions the new linguistic unit may not be a part of the sentence (Carroll, 2007, p. 195 ). For example, a speaker said “queer water” while he meant “clear water.” Here the word “clear” is replaced by a new word, “queer” (Fromkin, 1973, p. 220).
Finally, blends exist in speech production when the speaker intends to say two words but accidently mixes them (as cited in Carroll, 2007, p. 195). For example, a speaker said “swinged,” while he meant to say “switch and changed.” Here the word “swinged” is a result of combining the two words “switch” and “changed” (Fromkin, 1973, p. 229).
Furthermore, Stagni (1987) attempted to identify the speech errors in Arabic depending on the available classifications of speech errors that are found in the literature regarding slips of the tongue. Stagni aimed to analyze these errors in order to add them to the corpora of slips of the tongue of European languages. The following are examples of Stagni’s (1987) findings about Arabic slips of the tongue:
An example of anticipation error is “ Suufi Sihaam,” or “سوفي سهام , while the target expression is “شوفي سهام “ “Shuufi Sihaam,” “Look at Sihaam” (p. 273). Another example is of a preservation error is in “ صبي الشاي في الكاسة كاسه” “Subi Alshai filkaasa kaasa,” whereas the utterance is “ “صبي الشاي في الكاسة, “ Subi Alshai filkaasa,”...