The first article for review is titled Self-efficacy, Health Locus of
Control, and Smoking. This article studies how the participants confidence
levels and health locus prior to entering treatment predicts results of the
quitting program. The program is called "Fresh Start" and was conducted in
Victoria, Australia. It consisted of three groups:
(A) those who made an attempt (Stop for one day),
(B) those who met criteria in A, and did not smoke for duration
(C) those who abstained for six months.
Confidence was tested by questionnaires (post, during and at 6-month
period). Health Locus is defined by how the participant attributed health
outcomes (internal, external or by chance). The results of this experiment
showed that those individuals across the three groups who had high levels of
self-efficacy was related not to the number of attempts to quit, but the success
of the attempts, while "the role of Health Locus of Control [was found to be]
complex needing further investigation" (Stuart, Borland, & McMurray, 1994, p. 1).
The second article for review is titled, Sensation Seeking, Nicotine
Dependence, and Smoking Motivation in Female and Male Smokers. This study was
conducted using a sample of French smokers (36 F, 60 M) and non-smokers (23 F,
45 M). The goal of the experiment was to study "the relationship between
sensation seeking and smoking" (p. 221). The objectives of the study was (a) to
see if smokers are higher in sensation seeking than their non-smoking
counterparts, (b) to see if there are any gender forces in smoking and sensation
seeking, and (c) to examine "in each sex, the nature of the relationship between
sensation seeking and smoking" (p. 221).
These three items were measured on four sub-scales, they are:
1) The Disinhibition subscale (DIS) - shows desire to be
socially open, extroverted
2) The Thrill and Adventure Seeking subscale (TAS) - shows
desire, extreme physical activities.
3) The Experience Seeking subscale (ES) - shows search for
new and exciting life experiences.
4) The Boredom Susceptibility subscale (BS)
After the evaluation of multiple questionnaires was completed, results
of the subscale analysis was as follows: