If humans were to follow in the patterns of behavior and decision making of other creatures roaming the earth, or choices would be different than what they are today, at least according to the theories of symbolic interactionism. This theoretical approach suggests that the decisions that humans make are often skewed by the individual perception of the possible response of other individuals to those decisions. Using the purchase of a new car, for example, most people’s needs dictate an affordable vehicle that will get the highest fuel efficiency available. However, vehicles such as the Ford Raptor (starting MSRP of $ 44,415 and average of 13 miles per gallon fuel ...view middle of the document...
That role is then validated by the norms and sanctions related to the expectations of others regarding that particular role.
For instance, the language a member of the military while in the field might be slightly different from the language that same soldier might use in front of his mother. In one role, he fulfilling the expectations of a hardened warrior, brutish and crude in some respects. However, in his role as a son, the expectations are not the same. A son’s role might include respecting his parents, speaking kindly to those who raised him from a child. While the person remains the same in both situations, the role has change from one end of the spectrum to the other. The warrior role is hard and battle-worn, with a no-nonsense approach to getting things done. The child role, in spite of adult age, might portray safety, respect and trust.
One of the limitations of role theory comes into view once a severe deviation in social actions presents itself. For instance, there is no explanation of the expectations of serial killers or despots in the absence of prevalent roles in society. Another limitation of this theory is that while expectations are argued to form each of these roles, there is no explanation for the origin of the expectations themselves.
Social constructionism is based on the sociological theory that reality is governed by institutions and their actions. Examples of the constructed reality concept include religion (Freud, 1931), money, and politics. None of these things directly provide any substance necessary to sustain life. They do not provide nutrition, shelter or protection of any kind, without the acceptance of others of their existence and value. If society did not place value on, and accept the value of currency, then one could not simply walk into a store and buy enough groceries to survive for a month without the necessary hunting, farming or gathering. If no-one were to show up at a polling place to cast ballots,...