Ans-1 Social determinants of interpersonal violence
Relatively high rates of violence have been reported over the years among members of certain ethnic and racial groups and urban inhabitants. African Americans and Native Americans have comparatively high rates of assaultive interpersonal violence and homicide. Big cities continue to experience high rates of violence, focussed mainly among young black males in the United States.
Immigrant groups, especially second and third generations, have higher rates of delinquency and violence than the more privileged and settled ethnic groups that moved earlier to the US. The idea that particular ethnic, racial, or class groups have high rates of violence because of their cultural values also has become a key concept that ties and incorporates many challenging theories of interpersonal violence. The uneven possibility to violence is thought to be quite understandable for dysfunctional persons who belong not only to maladjusted families but also within defective or peculiar cultural or racial contexts. For example, violence among blacks is higher in single parent, female headed families (Sampson et al., 2005).
Considering personal relationships such as those with family, friends, intimate partners and peers may also influence the risks of becoming a victim or perpetrator of violence. For example, a poor relationship with parents and family, having violent and abusive friends may influence a young adult to get involved in or become a victim of violence.
Psychological violence which includes intense and repetitive humiliation, controlling the actions or behaviours of the partner; through psychological stress and pressure or manipulation leads to the impairment of the individual. Male dominance, low female literacy, rural areas and cultural norms and traditions play an important role in controlling behaviours and thus in interpersonal violence.
Also, a strong relationship has been observed between education and violence. Females who are independent and well educated have lower rates of violence. Low educational and occupational status, poverty, structural factors such as limited access to knowledge and information are associated with an increased likelihood of tolerating interpersonal violence among women especially in developing countries (Garcia et al., 2006).
Recommendations for prevention and/or early intervention
Increasing parental and family involvement- Inadequate monitoring, supervision and lack of parental involvement in the activities of children and adolescents are well-established risk factors for youth violence which can be due to busy full time working parents, nuclear families and other factors. Increasing positive adult involvement in the lives of children and young people appears to be an important element in the primary prevention of violence.
Changing cultural norms and tradition - It is one the most difficult interventions for preventing violence in society. Cultural tradition and...