Social Learning Theory Essay

1874 words - 7 pages

Akers and Sellers (2013) has stated that social learning theory is an expanded theory of differential association processes and improves it with differential reinforcement and other principles of the behavior theory. They added classical conditioning (the sharpening of involuntary reflex behavior); discriminative stimuli (internal stimuli that lead to signals for behavior); schedules of reinforcement (rewards and punishment ratio following behavioral feedback); and other theories of behavior (Akers & Sellers, 2013).
Akers’ social learning theory’s basic premise is that deviant behavior is learned. The theory has four components. First is definitions, where a person considers his behavior is normal. Definitions can be general or specific. General definitions refers to a person’s religious, moral, and conventional values which is conducive to conforming behavior and decreases the chances of committing deviant behavior. Specific definitions refers to a person orienting himself to an action or series of actions. For example, a person may believe that drinking and driving is wrong so he will follow the laws of the road. However, he may see little wrong in smoking marijuana, and break the law of drug possession and use. The second component is imitation where a person copies other people’s behavior after observing them. The third component is differential reinforcement which is the balance of anticipated punishments and rewards that are consequences of behavior. Differential reinforcements have positive (rewarding outcomes) and negative reinforcements (punishments for bad behavior). Finally, the last component is differential association which basically means the people you hang out with. Differential association has four elements which are priority, duration, frequency, and intensity (Akers & Sellers, 2013).
Furthermore, Akers and Sellers (2013) explained that the basic assumption of social learning theory is that it uses the same learning process of social structure, interaction, and situation, producing either conforming or criminal behavior. The chances that individuals will engage in deviant behavior, increases, when they get involved with the wrong crowd, and decreases when they associate themselves with good role models such as family, friends, religious institutions, and teachers (Aker & Sellers, 2013).
The purpose of this paper is to summarize, examine, and analyze two journal articles entitled, “Social Learning and Deviant Behavior: A Specific Test of a General Theory” and “Social Learning and Structural Factors in Adolescent Substance Use.” This paper will summarize the article’s main hypotheses, past research used in the study, and the importance of the study. In addition, the paper will examine the article’s methods including research design, data sources, relevant information on sampling, and independent and dependent variables. The paper will discuss the results of the main research question posed, check if the results were useful, list...

Find Another Essay On Social Learning Theory

Bandura and Social Learning Theory Essay

826 words - 3 pages Bandura and Social Learning Theory"Do as I say, not as I do." The quote is one of the most famous adages of all time. After all, mom is always right. Then how is it that many professionals disagree with such a classic phrase? Scientific evidence. Through years of research, world-renowned psychologist Albert Bandura created an entirely new field of psychology based on a fairly simple idea: humans learn by observation.Born on December 4, 1925, in

Social Learning Theory of Albert Bandura

3812 words - 15 pages Social Learning Theory of Albert Bandura If you've taken an introductory course in economics, you're already familiar with the policy planner's dilemma of deciding whether to allocate limited resources for guns or for butter. The problem is usually posed to illustrate the impersonal market forces of supply and demand, profit and loss. Yet planners are people, and most individuals come to the war-or-peace decision points of life having

Comparing Social Learning Theory and Cognitive Thinking

721 words - 3 pages Social learning theory is about imitating behaviour. Bandura was one of many psychologists who did some depth work into the subject. Bandura concocted an experiment that was based on classic study on observational learning or modelling. Young children were shown a film of an adult being aggressive towards a Bobo doll - hitting it with a hammer. The children that were shown praise were made to walk up and down a corridor before entering a room

Erik Erikson’s Ego Theory vs. Bandura’s Social Learning Theory

2081 words - 8 pages aggression as a universal human behavior. According to Freud, we, humans are unaware of its presence because we are suppressed by the superego. In Erikson’s theory, he explains how the ego is the part of the mind that gives coherence to experiences, conscious or unconscious. Erikson agreed with Freud that the ego is responsible for human behavior and aggression. On the other hand, social learning theorist Albert Bandura suggests that behavior is

The Root Causes of Sexual Offending: Social Learning Theory

1486 words - 6 pages Many etiological theories exist attempting to explain the root causes of sexual offending. Although few provide substantial evidence and no definitive conclusions have been made, the social learning theory has been proposed to account for sex offending behaviors. Specifically, the social learning theory, or victim-to-victimizer theory, suggests sexually abused children learn these behaviors and are much more likely to perpetrate abuse when

Learning Theory

4362 words - 17 pages to deliver the instruction. I think the process of instruction should start with mental therapeutic exercises such as spiritual enhancement and concentration in order to prepare the students mind to strategically receive and store information in memory.The learning outcome for the student using the Spirituality Enhancement and Concentration learning theory is the ability of the learner to use spirituality enhancement techniques to increase their

Learning Theory versus Strain Theory

1815 words - 7 pages Over the course of history, sociologists have wondered about the causes of deviance. They all have different conceits of the factors of why an individual engages in deviant behavior. These ideas can all be classified into different categories of theories such as learning theory, social disorganization theory, labeling theory and anomie theory. This paper only focuses on the learning theory and the anomie, or strain theory. The learning theory

Adult Learning Theory: Andragogy

1030 words - 4 pages When discussing the adult learning theory, andragogy is the best model for higher learning in adult education. Andragogy comes from the Greek word aner which means man and agogus which means leading (Knowles, 1980). The full translation means learning of adults. Andragogy was first used in the 1800s by a German teacher named Alex Kapp (Wang, 2011). It would not be until the late 1960s that a professor by the name of Malcolm S. Knowles

Adult Learning Theory

1693 words - 7 pages ADULT LEARNING THEORY 2 Adult Learning Theory Malcolm Knowles Malcolm Knowles (1913-1997) was a key figure in America’s adult education in the second half of the twentieth century (Smith, 2002). Early Life “Born in 1913 and initially raised in Montana,” Knowles seems to have had “a reasonably happy childhood. His father was a veterinarian and from around the age of four Knowles often accompanied him on his visits to farms and ranches” (Smith

Lee Vygotsky's Theory of Learning

695 words - 3 pages Lev Vygotsky developed his theory of learning in the 1920’s but it was not until the late 1960’s that his ideas about learning became popular and were used to contribute to “Constructivism” as a method of teaching. (Krause [et al.] 2010 p. p81). Vygotsky believed that learning and cognitive development were significantly influenced by social interactions that occur with in a particular sociocultural environment. There are four major

Applying Learning Theory to Life

1179 words - 5 pages encompass all learning types. Behaviorism is the psychology theory initiated from John B. Watson, and is grounded on the belief that behaviors can be measured, modeled and trained, as well as manipulated and changed (Cherry, 2013). This theory of learning is established on the concept that all behaviors are acquired through conditioning. This conditioning is completed through the interaction with the environment and therefore, it is believed that our

Similar Essays

Social Learning Theory Bandura Essay

965 words - 4 pages own actions to inform them what to do. Fortunately, most human behavior is learned observationally through modeling: from observing others one forms an idea of how new behaviors are performed, and on later occasions this coded information serves as a guide for action." -Albert Bandura, Social Learning Theory, 1977What is Social Learning Theory?The social learning theory proposed by Albert Bandura has become perhaps the most influential theory of

Social Learning Theory Essay

1001 words - 4 pages Albert Bandura’s Social Learning Theory describes the process through which people acquire new info, forms of behavior, or attitudes from others firsthand or vicariously. The likelihood of a behavior presenting itself will rely on the amount of reinforcement it receives and the value that the individual associates to it. While some behavior may be rewarded, others may produce unfavorable responses. An individual will learn from the consequences

Social Learning Theory Essay

2024 words - 8 pages The paper will focus on the application of the social learning theory through the use of video games that incorporate moral choices into their design. In this paper, I will first describe what the social learning theory is and its implications. I will discuss findings that pertain to the social learning theory and through violent television and operant conditioning from violent video games. I will also explore studies focusing on the impact of

Bandura’s Social Learning Theory Essay

2221 words - 9 pages learner. These two variables may not go hand-in-hand. Secondly, this framework was that using the model will help develop more inclusive models to better measure motivation. Currently there is a small amount of knowledge of looking at the psychological aspects as to why learners retain information, but unsure how this actually happens. Combining Keller’s ARCS Motivation Model (1987)along with the Bandura’s (1969) Social-Learning Theory, it is