This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Social Presence And Modes Of Communication

1338 words - 5 pages

We will first discuss the concept of social presence and its relationship to modes of communication. Following we will discuss the literature examining the use of video feedback to establish instructor social presence.
Social Presence and Modes of Communication
Historically, social presence has been closely related to the mode of communication used. Short, Williams, and Christie (1976) originally defined social presence as “the degree of salience of the other person” in mediated communication (p. 65). They also emphasized that social presence was an attribute of the mode of communication—the more communication cues that the tool could transmit, the more social presence it contained. Short et al.’s original definition of social presence is similar to the concept of media richness (Draft & Lengel, 1986). Draft and Lengel (1986) defined media richness as a communication medium’s capacity to process rich information and explained that face-to-face communication had the highest richness; and “impersonal written documents” and “numeric documents” had the lowest (p. 560).
Short et al. (1976) also believed that social presence was closely related to the concept of immediacy. Wiener and Mehrabian (1968) defined immediacy as the level of psychological distance that exists within communication. The words that are used, as well as the visual and auditory cues, during communication can affect the level of immediacy. Short et al. (1976) reasoned that when using the same communication tool it was possible for immediacy (a product of behavior) to vary while social presence (an attribute of tool) stayed constant.
The distinction between immediacy and social presence has since become less clear. Unlike Short et al. (1976), Gunawardena (1995) contended that social presence was in part a product of behavior and thus could “be cultivated” by participants (p. 162). Later, Garrison, Anderson, and Archer (2000) developed the Community of Inquiry (CoI) framework to examine text-based learning interactions in an online learning environment. Within this framework, Garrison et al. (2000) defined social presence as the degree to which participants are able to project their full personality socially and emotionally. Garrison et al. (2000) added that communication behaviors—not media—are the most important factors when measuring social presence. For instance, Garrison and his colleagues (Rourke, Anderson, Garrison, & Archer, 2001) performed content analyses on online text discussion boards and identified three behavior categories that helped online participants establish their social presence: affective expression, open communication, and group cohesion. In doing so, they concluded that social presence could be established using only written communication. However, Garrison at al. (2000) acknowledged that “the lack of visual cues [in text] may present particular challenges to establishing social presence” (p. 95).
Within the CoI framework, social...

Find Another Essay On Social Presence and Modes of Communication

The Characteristics of Bipolar Disorder and Modes of Treatment

986 words - 4 pages exciting developments have occurred, particularly in Bipolar Disorder and now we’re moving on from examining genes that cause the illness to, perhaps, specific aspects of Bipolar Disorder itself, perhaps even, being able to predict response. Environmental and demographic factors that are important include, factors related to birth, personal background, social and family background. History of medical conditions is also important. However, there is

Overpopulation and Its Modes of Persuasion; a Rhetorical Analysis

1404 words - 6 pages Famine, disease, social tension and poverty – progress, societal fortitude, prosperity and facility. All of these are consequences of one question deep at the heart of the quest for sustainable human existence; the question of the maximum capacity supportable by the planet Earth. As is true of a good deal of the puzzles plaguing our time, little consensus is to be found surrounding this topic. Fueled by images of societal collapse, hunger and

Communication Before and After the Emergence of Social Networks

2778 words - 11 pages Communication” n.p.). When social networks emerged, communication improved. People began to communicate through social networks such as SixDegrees. It is the first recognizable social network which allowed people to register, make their own profiles, invite friends, and surf other profiles. There were millions of users and sending messages and connecting with others became easier for them. Another early social network is now known as a

Social Management and Effective Communication

1223 words - 5 pages Plato Plato made arguments,and contributions that shaped the modern society to be what it is today.Social management is an unavoidable fact in the society. It is the core of leadership where skills are used and utilized to help the people in the society. People are looked at the social managers, especially those with qualifications such that all careers gain some importance here. Any society needs socialmanagement. Plato from those early days

The Presence and Practices of Sikhism in Canada

1543 words - 6 pages Sikhism is a religion that was founded in India by Guru Nanak around 1500 B.C. Since then, it has grown in numbers and has become a widely known world religion. In fact, the main place of worship and the holiest shrine in the Sikhism faith, the Golden Temple was just visited by the Prime Minister of Canada, Stephen Harper, in early November, 2009. This paper was written to give you a better idea of the presence and practices of Sikhism in

The Presence of Pure Instruction and Pure Delight

1684 words - 7 pages Images of the sacralised child, of the junior teacher instructing negligent adults, and of the doomed child promoting social reform—so readily dismissed as over-determined and unbelievable—out to be immersed and re-assessed in social settings far removed from the twenty-first century (Demers, 2008). Pure instruction and pure delight are apparent in the readings that have been discussed during class. There is evidence from the readings that pure

Problem How is the presence of carbohydrates, proteins and fats

470 words - 2 pages Problem How is the presence of carbohydrates, proteins and fats identified in various foods? Background Information Organic Substances are mostly found in natural waters , for example: the aminoacids, carbohydrates, vitamins, humic acids, fulvic acid, lignins, pectins, enzymes and others.Inorganic substances are often found in matter compositions like in minerals.The difference between an organic substance and an inorganic substance is that

The Presence of Britain in India and Cultural Disintegration

833 words - 3 pages The presence of Britain in India has a great significant importance today because the world is globalizing people are becoming interconnected and are becoming dependent on each other. Historical legacies included the cultural traditions and celebrations which the people are involved in. Cultural impacts of the dominant power is still seen on the country being influenced because there would be the same pop culture in the developing countries

Business’s choice of entry modes in international market and its advantages and disadvantages

2095 words - 9 pages Working title: Business’s choice of entry modes in international market and its advantages and disadvantages Introduction Well known companies like Nike, Microsoft, Sony, Shell Group are just some of the big companies that went global and expanded their trading around the world, they are large businesses that operate internationally in many countries. Development of worldwide integration urges companies to reach out international markets and

Understand and Critically Evaluating Entry Modes of Businesses in International Market

1209 words - 5 pages markets, most of companies’ export goods, move resources with other country and also many companies get suppliers from foreign countries. In addition these trading activities of businesses outside the country can help the economy grow. The aim of this paper is to understand and critically evaluate entry modes of businesses in international market; this research question was chosen to figure out how an enterprise decides to engage in

Advancing the Argument, Analyzing Modes of Persuasion in Edward I. Koch’s 1985 Essay “Death and Justice”

1211 words - 5 pages testimony about the statements made by the killers Messrs. Willie and Shaw. I believe that Koch has done a good job of advancing his argument through the use of the modes of persuasion which I will now demonstrate by analyzing his use of ethos, logos and pathos in his writing. Koch has gained his audience’s attention and now he moves to earn their confidence through his use of ethos in paragraph four. He wants his audience to agree with him or at least

Similar Essays

Social Work Modes Of Practice Community Development

1768 words - 7 pages To understand the concept of community development and how it relates to social work practice, firstly the 'community' itself, should be defined in the context of social work. Community development is about giving people a fair and just share of available resources. This mode of practice highlights an extension of the skills and methods of social work 'direct' practice. Case work and community development, as separate modes of practice, are

Sex And Defence As Modes Of Discourse

907 words - 4 pages that the aggressive, the social and the intellectual modes are most relevant to satirical discourse. Though Simpson elaborates on the three functions deemed most relevant in satirical discourse, he dismisses the significance of both the sexual and defensive by amalgamating, what he proposes, are their functions. He states that, of these categories, the sexual function, where laughing about sex is seen as a way of dealing with the topic in a

Realism And Gods Presence Is A Crucial Part Of All Social Anthropology

1021 words - 4 pages supernatural presence should be. Belief in a supernatural God or religion is a crucial part of all social anthropology. It is a basic practice of a culture to develop a religion and faith in a supernatural God. If God were not accepted in realistic theatre than perhaps characters would not be as 3 dimensional as possible. If the spiritual presence of God is not allowed for realistic characters, than Stanislavski’s intangible inner truth, his morality

The Complementarity Of Scientific And Religious Modes Of Understanding Reality

3174 words - 13 pages philosophical abstraction, a satisfying reconciliation of science and religion will likely always remain elusive. At the level of personal experience, however, incorporating scientific and religious modes of understanding is not only possible, it is profoundly enriching. The impulses, methods, and themes that define both science and religion are strikingly similar. Curiosity and an insatiable desire to make sense of the world are qualities that are