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Social Reformist And Market Liberal Approaches May Have Been Suitable For The Social Condition Of The 20th Century, But 3rd Way Welfare Policies Are More Relevant To The 21st Century.

2925 words - 12 pages

This essay will look at the social conditions that existed for each of the political parties and the welfare policy approaches that each party adopted in relation to the NHS. Initially I will look at Social Reformist policies followed by Market Liberals. But as a consequence of the research the essay will demonstrate that New Labour has used a collaboration of existing ideologies to create a set of welfare policies, which they claim are relevant to meeting the needs of the NHS in the 21st Century:'The practise of what is known in the business world as 'brokerage politics' or 'dealer politics - adopting the opposition's best policies'.(Jones, 2000 p.199)The Second World War for the general population was an experience that was more extensive and indiscriminate than of any previous conflicts. Previous wars had mostly been fought far from Britain. The Blitzkrieg, the war by air, changed this. It destroyed millions of homes and forced people from the cities to flee to the countryside, bringing together people from different classes and backgrounds. It had been an intense and traumatic time for the entire nation but also a realisation that misfortune and tragedy were not restricted to the disadvantage alone. The task of re-building the state needed to take place at every level, as well as the re-building of lives:'Lives was shortages of everything - food, even bread and potatoes, clothes, transport, accommodation'(Jones, 1991 p.121)This led to a great expansion in the role of Government in society. Historically British social policy had been dominated by the Poor Laws. But now there was widespread support for reform and expansion of the welfare system. Development of such reforms would owe much to Fabianist beliefs and the Beveridge Report 1942. William Beveridge was appointed by the wartime Government to review Social Security Policy. His report concluded that the state should meet collective welfare needs and provide positive freedom to individuals by removing the Five Giant Evils. In 1945 Labour began addressing Beveridge's evil through state action introduced reforms:'The National Health Service was set up to combat Disease.Full Employment to combat Idleness.State Education to fifteen to combat ignorance (actually introduced by the war time government).Public Housing to combat Squalor.National Insurance and Assistance Schemes to combat Want.'(Jones, 1991 p.126)Claiming:'Our policy was not of reformed capitalism, but progress towards a democratic socialism...the war had shown how much could be accomplished when public advantage was put before private vested interest. If that was right in wartime, it was right in peacetime'(Jones, 1991 p.117)To describe the social policy reforms, press at the time coined the phrase 'from the cradle to the grave'. Alcock describes the social policy proposals as:'The social policy response to the depravation of depression'(Alcock, 2003 p.220)Prior to the NHS, health care was not a luxury everybody could afford. Access...

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