Socialcommunity Essay

1536 words - 7 pages

Social exclusion has been defined in many ways. It has been defined as a label for what would happen when individuals suffer from a combination of problems that may be linked, such as: unemployment, low income, health issues and etc. another possible definition is the lack of participating in social, political, economic and cultural life, which can be seen as alienation from the society. It is a condition of society rather than a condition of an individual. Social exclusion can be seen in all of these different definitions, which presents it as a multifaceted problem. Earlier in the ages, gender has always been seen as a form of social exclusion. Inequalities and gender differences are a ...view middle of the document...

Feminist theories emphasize that these ’classifications’ are all connected, as they act as one in everyday interactions, often outside awareness. Feminist perspectives share two important themes. So, first, feminism values women as important and worthwhile human beings and second, feminism recognizes the need for social change if women are to lead secure and satisfying lives. The main social change that feminists promote is and end to any kind of domination: those of men over women and also among women in different classes. Conservatives on the other hand, promote to keep gender arrangements as they have been in the past years, with males holding public power and women being restricted to home and family. They have been also justified by both biological and religious grounds, so women should not be encouraged to try doing things that go against their “nature.” When there is an interaction between individuals, the influence of sex and gender associated. People use gender to make inferences about sex, as they use earlier observed sex characteristics to make inference about gender. For example, when man and woman go to buy a car, the sales person tends to direct the sales to the man rather than to the woman. The sales person acts according to his beliefs about which partner is more likely to make decisions, in this case to buy the car. These kinds of interactions are so ‘normal’ that they pass unnoticed when encountered.

As stated earlier, gender difference plays a great factor in social exclusion. Women are easily excluded when talking about career opportunities as career expectations have been “given” already. Traditional gender role socialization has also affected women that plan a nontraditional career. Most important of all, there is Gender Role expectation. For any occupational category, such as professional, sales, household and etc. women earn less than men. When choosing a career, abilities don’t count, but only gender does. For example, few women would employ in mechanics or even managerial. In the same way, very few men would employ as households. Obviously, men would have a greater income in mechanics than women in household services. So, gender differences in choosing a career and gender discrimination when hiring generate differences in career opportunities. Discrimination when hiring restrict more women’s opportunities for access to careers than men’s opportunities. This leads to gender stereotypes, which are a source of discrimination when hiring, especially for job positions. Men have an advantage when applying for “masculine” jobs and women have a disadvantage. Evidence of gender discrimination when hiring came from a study -Glick, Zion, Nelson, 1988 (Brannon 321). Fabricated résumés where sent to a business professionals for hiring. Résumés contained information with stereotypical or neutral characteristics of the applicant’s gender. The information in the résumés affected the business professionals’ ratings of...

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