Socialism is a way of controlling the economy, in which the government owns and runs all of the businesses of a society. Socialism can be broken up into two different categories: Utopian Socialism and Scientific Socialism. These two types have some similar views, but also are very different in certain ways. For example, Utopian Society is basically a peaceful way to get what you want whereas Scientific Socialism, which was what Karl Marx represented, held the belief that the only way to get what you want is through revolution. These views of socialism held the total opposite views of a man named Adam Smith, who believed in capitalism, and who wrote the book, The Wealth of Nations.
There was agreement between the two different forms of Socialism in that they both held the same basic beliefs that the government should run all parts of society and that no one group was any more special than another. That is, one person should not be favored over another. Socialists though that everyone was equal, and that is where the communist name of comrade came from instead of using titles such as Mr. or Mrs. They both believed in the fact that the government should control all business decisions. In economics, there are three main decisions that are to be made: 1. What to produce?, 2. How to produce it?, and 3. For whom should it be produced? In an economy based on socialism, these decisions are solely made by the government. In other words, the government decides what to make, what process they are going to use to make it, and who they will make the products for. These are basically the only similarities between the two forms of socialism.
Now, it is time to take a look at the differences in the views of Utopian Socialism and Scientific Socialism. Utopian Socialism arose in the latter half of the 18th Century. These socialists viewed the distribution of wealth as unfair. They believed that the nobles and upper class mistreated the working class. They complained of low wages, bad management and basically all of the conflicts which have risen due to competition, capitalism, and a free market. Utopian Socialists were given this name because the nature of their solution was to basically create a “perfect” society. A society in which the government, nobles, and upper class would give up their titles to live in a classless society where equality was key. A French man by the name of Pierre Proudhon was in a feud with Karl Marx, and wrote a book called What Is Property?. In it he answered that property was theft, and he had called for an end to private riches. (Heilbroner 153).
Utopian Socialists also believed in the “Golden Rule,” that is, do unto others what you would like done to you. There was no room for bitterness towards other people. They were...