Sociology is the systematic study of groups and builds human society and how these groups affect our lives. For Tim Curry Sociology studies the individual and social institutions that affect these individuals (Pg. 2) Social institutions are family, economy, education, and government. Sociology will study these institutions, their origin, preservation and processing (today the institution how is changing most is the family). They are the answer to survival and to endure.
Sociology will start by saying that humans are social beings that we continually create groups and social categories. We classify the environment (race, age, religion, social status, etc.). We are conditioned by the society in which we live. The way in which society sets and configured limits the opportunities of the individual. Sociology is concerned with the external forces of human behavior, and will focus on the behavior of a given moment in society. It will study humans constituted in groups. Sociology will help us to analyze and examine social problems, see the causes thereof and propose alternatives and solutions to those problems.
New ideas about society and social problems began in the mind of sociologies, and all these new thoughts arise from two revolutions: the French (political) and Industrial. Sociologies start to think in society by the convulsion causing both revolutions. Callinicos, Alex write “The years between 1789 1nd 1848 have been called the epoch of the “dual revolution” Politically, there was the French revolution of 1879; economically, there was the industrial revolution”. (Pg. 38) Bothe revolutions be the bases for the outbreak of the new ideas. It involves a total change where society, their order and operating were questioned. There is also a change in the way we produce.
One of these thinkers is Marx, His influence will be very important during the time when functionalism began in crisis and Marxism in as an alternative. His theories are maintained until the 70’s. His theory began valid again for the new atmosphere: globalization, poverty, marginalization in poor countries and major crises. Concepts such as alienation and exploitation will be renewed. His most important work is The Capital. Only the first volume of Marx's life was published. Marx was the founder of the Workers' International and this position give him problems with the anarchists. The Capital summarizes the influences of other thinkers. Marx raises his own thesis on what may be his connection with other thinkers and also present his thought as an alternative. When Marx postures his Dialectical Method we can perceive the influence of Hegel. Besides Engels and Hegel, also Marx is influence by the political encomiasts Adam Smith and David Ricardo. These influence him when developing the concept of work as a source of wealth and that the term surplus value is associated (the worker is paid less and that surplus is reinvested so that the wealth of the capitalist increases).