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Socrates Asks "What Is Justice". I Explained What "Justice" Is By Breaking Down All That I Learned In Class.

960 words - 4 pages

Bhumendra JadubansDr. Ronnie KleinQuestion 3Glaucon and Adeimantus' challenges justice by way of three views, these views are 1. Glaucon's social contract theory (358e-359b), 2. The story of Gyges' Ring (359b-360e), and 3. The comparison of lives (360e-362c). Adeimantus says that according to the most common defenses of justice that are offered, the advantages of justice come from seeming just, not from being just (362e-367a). In other words people are only "just" because of the penalties that follow, if being "unjust" had no penalties then surely everyone would be "unjust". Socrates says in order to answer this challenge; he needs to know what justice is. Socrates explains that it will be easier if we talk about justice in the city as a whole rather then the individual 368d-e. Plato or Socrates answers the question via three parts - 1.Plato presents a division of the soul into 3 parts - the appetitive part, the spirited part and the rational part (436a-441b), 2. Plato gives an explanation of the virtues in terms of these 3 parts of the soul, similar to his account of the virtues of the city (441c-444b) and 3. Plato uses this account of the virtues to explain very vaguely why the virtuous person is always happier than the vicious person (444c-445c).Plato's first part of the soul is the appetite, which includes all our myriad desires for various pleasures, comforts, physical satisfactions, and bodily ease. There are so many of these appetites that Plato didn't bother to mention, but he does note that they can often be in conflict even with each other. The second is the spirited, or hot-blooded, part, i.e., the part that gets angry when it perceives, i.e. an injustice being done. This is the part of us that loves to face and overcome great challenges; the part that can steel itself to adversity, and that loves victory, winning, challenge, and honor. (Note that Plato's use of the term "spirited" here is not the same as "spiritual." He means "spirited" in the same sense that we speak of a high-spirited horse, for example, one with lots of energy and power.) The last part is the mind or our conscious awareness, this is the part of us that thinks, analyzes, looks ahead, rationally weighs options, and tries to gauge what is best and truest overall.These 3 parts of the soul are supposed to be parallel to the 3 classes in the ideal city: the moneymaking productive class, the auxiliary or military class, and the ruling class or guardians. This leads to Plato's account of the virtues. Plato has already given account's of what it is for a city to be good, and more specifically what it is for a city to be courageous, moderate, wise, and just (427e-435e.). His account of what it is for individual people to have...

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