Soil Salinization And Its Impact On Plants

1073 words - 5 pages

Humans and the environment on which we live relying on soil for plant growth, provision of water and the storage of carbon. From that point we can infer that soil is linked to everything around us and plays many significant roles in sustaining life on earth. Soil is defined as the surface of the earth’s crust. Soil degradation is defined by Environment and Heritage, a conservation body as the decline in soil quality caused by its improper use, usually for agricultural, pastural, industrial or urban purposes.
Soil contains various metals and living organisms. All the food, which humans use, are produced on soil. Soil also serves as a habitat for some living things. Because of these important roles played by soil, damages to the soil will result in crippling effects to food supply production leading to possible food shortage, and rising food costs. The trends of the major soil degradation are almost difficult to measure because they are constantly changing. Soil degradation such as, the erosion, organic matter decline, compaction, salinization, landslides, contamination, sealing, biodiversity decline is the significant soil degradation. These degradations occur at the land surface as a poor agriculture. Soil Salinity is known as the salt content in the soil, and the process of increasing the salt content is known as salinization. It is considered to be as a significant environmental problem because people are more worried about the other environmental problems and they are unaware how important it is while it keeps increasing. Not only are they unaware but they also contribute to exacerbate the problem. Soil salinity appears as white or light brown crusts on the surface. The importance of soil is stores and filter water as it passes through it. So, if there was no soil, there would be no plants which mean that soil salinity could destroy the plant diversity of the earth. By knowing its causes, effects on plants, and solutions we can preserve the plant diversity.
Soil salinization has been divided into two kinds; the first one is identified as a primary salt-affected soil. Primary salinization is the accumulation of salts in the soil and groundwater by natural process such as weathering, and climate change. The second kind is a secondary salinization. That kind of salinization occurs by some human activities such as irrigation, land clearing, the salting of icy roads, and some of the tilling methods they use inflate the problems. For example, before the clearing, most water is used where it falls, but after the clearing saline ground water rises and is concentrated at the land’s surface by evaporation. As a result the accumulation of the salts at the surface kills protective plant cover. Irrigation is the major cause for soil salinity because when the plants use the water, the salts are left behind and begin to accumulate. For example, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is a large country with a total land area of around 2.2×〖10〗^(6 ) 〖Km〗^2 . Farmers...

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