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Solubility Of Salt Essay

2409 words - 10 pages

Objectives of ExperimentThe objectives of this experiment are:1. To determine the solubility of a solute at a different temperature2. To state the differences between a saturated and an ordinary solutionTheory and BackgroundSolubility is a measure of how easily one substance can dissolve in another.The more soluble a substance is in water, for example, the more of it you can dissolve inwater before it starts to pile up at the bottom. When more of a substance can still bedissolved in water, we say the water is unsaturated. When no more of the substance willdissolve, we say the water has become saturated. Ionic solids (or salts) contain positive and negative ions, which are held together by the strong force of attraction between particles with opposite charges. When one of these solids dissolves in water, the ions that form the solid are released into solution, where they become associated with the polar solvent molecules.We can generally assume that salts dissociate into their ions when they dissolve in water. Ionic compounds dissolve in water if the energy given off when the ions interact with water molecules compensates for the energy needed to break the ionic bonds in the solid and the energy required to separate the water molecules so that the ions can be inserted into solution. There are a number of patterns in the data obtained from measuring the solubility of different salts. These patterns form the basis for the rules outlined in the table below, which can guide predictions of whether a given salt will dissolve in water. These rules are based on the following definitions of the terms soluble, insoluble, and slightly soluble. A salt is soluble if it dissolves in water to give a solution with a concentration of at least 0.1 moles per liter at room temperature. A salt is insoluble if the concentration of an aqueous solution is less than 0.001 M at room temperature. Slightly soluble salts give solutions that fall between these extremes.Solubility Rules for Ionic Compounds in WaterSoluble Salts1. The Na+, K+, and NH4+ ions form soluble salts. Thus, NaCl, KClO3, (NH4)2SO4, Na2S, and (NH4)2CO3 are soluble.2. The nitrate (NO3-) ion forms soluble salts. Thus, Cu(NO3)2 and Fe(NO3)3 are soluble.3. The chloride (Cl-), bromide (Br-), and iodide (I-) ions generally form soluble salts. Exceptions to this rule include salts of the Pb2+, Hg22+, Ag+, and Cu+ ions. ZnCl2 is soluble, but CuBr is not.4. The sulfate (SO42-) ion generally forms soluble salts. Exceptions include BaSO4, SrSO4, and PbSO4, which are insoluble, and Ag2SO4, CaSO4, and Hg2SO4, which are slightly soluble.Potassium chlorate is a compound containing potassium, chlorine and oxygen. It has a melting point of 368°C. Potassium chlorate should be handled with care. It reacts vigorously and in some cases spontaneously when mixed with many combustible materials. It is used in some traditional recipes for gunpowder, some of which are unstable. When mixed with some materials it forms a high...

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