South American Essay

2234 words - 9 pages

In the United States, immigrants from South America are the second major segment from Latin American population. South American immigrants mostly come from countries like Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Brazil; yet, in a whole, their population represented the 7% or 2.7 million of all immigrants in 2011 (Stoney, Batalova and Russell, “South American Immigranta in the United States”). Since statistics have shown a significant increment on the population from this immigrant group, South American immigrants are becoming an important minority in the United States. Therefore, this paper analyses the migration history of Cesar Tello, who emigrated from Brazil ten years ago to come to the U.S. Through ...view middle of the document...

South American countries have a racial diversity due to early colonization from Spanish, as well as their African and Indigenous roots. They have varied ethnicities such as Mestizos, Blacks, Native American and Whites. However, despite their different ethnicities, they are just denominated as Latinos. According to Orozco Suarez in the article “Latin American” from Harvard University, the identity of the U.S. society has been changing slowly due to immigration: “The new immigrants (about 80 percent of them) tend to be non-whites, non-English-speaking, non-European emigrating from developing countries in Latin America…” South American immigrants contribute contrasting ethnicities to the society depending of their native countries. In brief, South American immigrants have contributed to a change in the demographics of some parts of the country and to the economy through labor, education and culture exchange.
Furthermore, to understand the process of migration it is important to analyze the theories of migration. For this purpose, I start by defining the neoclassical theory. The neoclassical theory focuses on the individual decision to leave the native country in order to find better educational and/or economic opportunities (Castles and Miller, “Theories of Migration”). Therefore, based on this theory, some immigrants might be categorized according to the neoclassical theory because their decision to migrate is an individual decision to find success and prosperity in a different country from their native country. Also, an individual decision to migrate is made based on two relevant factors; this theory analyses the push and pull factors that made possible migration. For example, unfavorable circumstances in the mother country like unemployment or political instability force people to leave their place of origin. In the same way, to find favorable options in the adopting country such as high demand for labor, political and religion freedom and better education attract people to migrate and take advantage of these opportunities.
The second theory I analyze for this purpose is the new economic of labor migration. This theory rather than explains migration as an individual decision, it describes it as a collective decision in which families and/or communities are involved. From this point of view, this theory defines migration as an economic strategy for families and communities; that is, these social groups decide who should migrate in order to obtain more resources that later will be invested in the country of origin. The new economic of labor migration explain migration from a collective perspective as a process that might balance economic factors in the adopting and native countries for social groups. Also, in this migration theory, the push and pull factors are important but from a collective context, hence it deals with more variety of factors.
I decided to include the neoclassical and the new economic of labor migration theories in this paper...

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