Thesis: The policies instituted under the rule of the Bourbons heightened social tensions between the creoles and pennisulares, and when combined with enlightenment ideas from Europe led to South American Independence led by revolutionary leader Simon Bolivar.
I. Introduction: Social Hierarchy that laid the ground for revolution.
A. Social hierarchy based on origin and blood.
1. Peninsulares, Creoles , and Mestizos .
B. Hierarchy system was very complex.
1. Hard for people to mobilize their social position, and led to social tensions.
II. Bourbon hands-on policies created and exposed problems in the colonial government and caused Creoles to resent the Bourbons.
A. Appointment of Viceroys.
1. Took positions from Creoles and decreased freedom.
B. The weakening of local governments was created by the increased number of Spanish bureaucrats and the Creoles loss of power.
1. The goal of the Bourbons was direct imperial control.
a. Led to frustration and social tensions .
III. Bourbon Economic policies increased social tensions.
A. Mining and Agricultural prosperity.
1. Expansion and increased production.
a. Economic prosperity increased social tensions.
B. Bourbons reformed and modernized commercial system under the Decree of Free Trade .
1. Commercial relations changed due economic expansion of the 18th century.
2. Liberalized regulations.
a. Easier and cheaper to trade legally with Spain.
3. Created monopoly companies modeled after Dutch or British East India company.
4. Steadily increased the number of ports allowed to trade with another.
5. Increased taxation and reformed tax collection system.
a. People opposed new taxes.
D. Economic growth was accompanied by social change.
1. Tensions between working classes.
IV. Enlightenment Ideas spread to Colonies.
A. Enlightenment ideas from Locke, Rousseau, Voltaire, and Montesquieu began to flood into the colonies.
1. Social and political ideas form these thinkers had heavy influence on thinking.
2. Montesquieu’s ideals were supported by Creoles.
B. Enlightenment ideas led to Creolism.
1. Creoles became aware of their power, and formulated their own political and social ideas.
C. Enlightenment was not a cause, but an important ingredient in the revolution.
V. Simon Bolivar rises during Enlightenment.
A. Early Influence by 17th and 18th Philosophy.
B. Bolivar’s critique of Bourbon Policy.
1. Jamica Letter.
C. Bolivars view on government.
1. Strong republic.
2. Published ideas in Manifesto.
D. Rise to power and liberation.
1. Battle of Caraboro 1821.
VI. Conclusion: South American Independence.
A. Due to variety of factors.
1. Bourbon policies.
2. Social Tensions.
3. Enlightenment ideas.
B. Bolivar led the revolution.
1. His views on government led the revolution.
South American Independence: Bourbon Policies, Enlightenment and Simon Bolivar.
There were several factors that led to the revolution of the...