The Soviet Union’s Biological Substance Preparation program also known as Biopreparat was
created in 1973; the main idea was to establish an entity that would not leave any “footprints” of
biological weapons activity in the Soviet Union. This was needed since the Soviet Union had signed the Biological Weapons Convention in 1972, which banned the mass production, and used of biological weapons. So to avoid drawing any attention to the link between the Bioperparat and the 15th Directorate, communication only occurred at the headquarters level with no direct contact. As time went by, however, it became necessary for small groups of Biopreparat scientists to visit the Military of defense facility.
The use of biological weapons has been a warfare tactic throughout history. In 1346, the invading Tartar army catapulted the bodies of Plague victims and infected its citizens. In 1763, the British forces distributed used blankets infected with smallpox to the Delaware Indians, more than likely infecting the susceptible population. Japan contaminated food and water released Plague-infected ticks during their quarrel with China at the time of World War II. The 2001 anthrax letter attacks in the United States infected twenty two people and killed five.
Biological weapons are utilized by the distribution of toxins and microorganisms, such as viruses and bacteria to deliberately cause infectious disease. The method, in which a biological weapon may be utilized, relies on numerous factors. Some factors include, the agent itself, the preparation of the weapon, and its strength of effectiveness in the environment. Agents may be disbursed through the air as an aerosol, which can be inhaled, also aerosol agents infect humans is through penetrating a vulnerable spot on the skin, like a cut a wound or a sore. Other methods of the use of biological weapons may be the contamination of food or water.
There were three generations of chemical weapon that the Soviet Union developed. The first generation of chemical weapons was developed in Germany, the U.S and other nations which led to the Soviet Union making similar weapons after WWI. These weapons were Persistent Toxic Chemical (PTC) and Non-Persistent Toxic Chemical (NTC). They contained general toxic and skin blistering agents. These were not retired up until the nineteen eighties. The second generation of chemical weapons included Organophosphorus Toxic Chemical (OTC’s) which contain paralytic nerve action gases. In liquid form the active agents pass through the skin causing complete poisoning. These types of biological weapons are still being stockpiled today. The third generation of chemical weapons is more effective in the use of combat. Development of new OTC became the basis of the third generation. Not much is known about the combat characteristics of these new weapons, however it be assumed that it is very hazardous to the human race and animals. The Soviet Union began developing...