Spanish Grade 11 (First Language) Spanish Study Guide

1768 words - 8 pages

Lengua Castellana I
Lengua
Castellana 1
Índice
1. Las funciones sintácticas
1.1. Funciones y categorías sintácticas…………………………………………………….. 3
1.2. Los sintagmas……………………………………………………………………………………. 4
1.3. Funciones oracionales……………………………………………………………………….. 5
1.4. Funciones extraoracionales…………………………………………………………..….. 6
2. La oración
2.1. Oración y enunciado…………………………………………………………………………. 7
2.2. Clasificación de la oración simple……………………………………………………… 7
2.3. Valores del se…………………………………………………………………………………… 9
3. Oración compuesta
3.1. Coordinación……………………………………………………………………………………. 10
1. Las funciones sintácticas
1.1. Funciones y categorías sintácticas
Las relaciones entre funciones y categorías se rigen por dos principios fundamentales:
I. Una misma categoría sintáctica puede desempeñar distintas funciones.
II. Una misma función puede ser desempeñada por diferentes categorías sintácticas.
Determinante
Núcleo
Modificador
Enlace
Término
Suj
CD
CI
Atributo
CRég
CC
CAg
CPvo
Vocativo
Complemento oracional
Sintagmáticas
Oracionales
Extraoracionales
Funciones sintácticas
1.2. Los sintagmas
a. SINTAGMA NOMINAL (SN)
· Núcleo: sustantivo
· Det + NÚCLEO + Mod
I. Determinante (Det): palabras que forman la categoría de los determinantes (artículo, demostrativos, posesivos, numerales, indefinidos, distributivos, identificativos, exclamativos, interrogativos).
II. Núcleo: sustantivos, pronombres (personales, demostrativos, posesivos, numerales, indefinidos, interrogativos) y palabras sustantivadas.
III. Modificador (Mod): sintagmas adjetival, nominal, preposicional y adverbial.
b. SINTAGMA PREPOSICIONAL (SPrep)
· ENL + TÉRM
I. Enlace (ENL): preposiciones y locuciones preposicionales.
II. Término (TÉRM): sintagmas nominal, adjetival y adverbial.
c. SINTAGMA ADJETIVAL (SAdj)
· MOD + NÚCLEO
I. Modificador (Mod): sintagmas adverbial y preposicional.
II. Núcleo: adjetivo.
d. SINTAGMA ADVERBIAL (SAdv)
· MOD + NÚCLEO
I. Modificador (Mod): sintagmas adverbial y preposcional.
II. Núcleo: adverbio.
e. SINTAGMA VERBAL (SV)
· NÚCLEO + COMPLEMENTOS
· El SV funciona como predicado de la oración.
I. Núcleo: verbo.
II. Complementos: CD, CI, CC, Atributo, CAg, CRég, CPvo.
1.3. Funciones oracionales
a. SUJETO
· Concordancia: el núcleo del sujeto siempre concuerda en número y persona con el núcleo verbal.
· El único sintagma que puede desempeñar la función de sujeto es un SN, nunca precedido de preposición.
b. ATRIBUTO
· Solo puede aparecer en predicados nominales.
· Sustantivo, pronombre, infinitivo, adverbio/locución adverbial, SPrep.
· Concordancia: concuerda en género y número con el sujeto.
· Se puede sustituir por el pronombre neutro lo.
c. COMPLEMENTO DIRECTO (CD)
· Solo aparece con verbos transitivos.
· SN o SPrep introducido por la preposición a.
· Se puede sustituir por pronombre personales: me, te, lo, la, nos, os, los, las.
· Duplicación: cuando el CD aparece antepuesto al núcleo verbal, se duplica mediante un pronombre átono de objeto directo.
d. COMPLEMENTO INDIRECTO (CI)
· SPrep...

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