Athens vs. Sparta
Athens and Sparta had many social differences, and so the way the Athenians lived was very different from the way the Spartans lived. Athenians wanted the people to, "Know thy self" and be one with their body and mind. They also believed in philosophy and in Athens there were some of the greatest philosophers. There were many people in Athens that studied philosophy. Philosophy is the study of methods and limits of human knowledge. The Athenians also believed that the individual came before the group. The Spartans were almost completely different from the Athens. Sparta life revolved around the army and it was a military society. It was so extreme that they wouldn't care for sick babies. At the age of 7, the boys would be taken from their homes and placed in a military barracks and they would serve the military until they were 60, which meant most of them spent their whole lives in the military. The women had more freedom and were brought up to be strong and healthy. The Spartans believed that the group came before the individual.
The city-states of Athens and Spartan had different political views. Athens was a direct democracy and many of there ways are still used today. A direct democracy meant that the citizens could vote on the issues directly and that the citizens hold the power. The citizens consisted of any man born in Athens. The non-citizens were women, foreign-born males, and slaves. All of the citizens could belong to the Assembly, and they choose by lottery because they thought election favored the rich, and they wanted it to be equal. They also had a system called the ostracism, in which the citizens would write the name of an undesirable politician and if they person's name appeared more than 6,000 times, he could be removed. The Spartans were an oligarchy, which is a small group of people holding political power. The small group of people was called the Assembly. The Assembly was made up of all male citizens over the age of 30. The Assembly would pass laws and made decisions concerning the war and peace.
To get the people for the Council of Elders, the assembly would choose 28 male citizens over the age of 60. These men would serve as a supreme court for Sparta. The two kings of Sparta had very little power except for leading the army and conducting religious services. Athens and Sparta had a common goal, which was to control...