Critique and Limitations Cited by Researchers
The studies reviewed were qualitative in nature, therefore they are considered subjective. Berry (2008) made a statement regarding author bias noting the inherent weakness of qualitative analysis. The author sought to counter this weakness by quantifying test units through the use of computer software programs.
Both Cook et al. (2007) and Gojkovic (2007) suggest future validation of the rating scale should involve observation of student-teacher interactions. They also suggest rewording the prompts in order to yield greater variance in the teacher ratings. Further research opportunities are also used to determine the reasons for teacher ratings of indifference toward included students as they are higher than those of students without disabilities. Additionally, further research could be conducted differently, including monitoring teachers’ attitudes toward all students throughout the school year, or examining the impact of specific events on teacher attitude.
In reviewing many studies several authors noted their research was limited due to location and small sample size. Cook et al. (2007) noted limitations including the location of the participants is very specific (e.g.,northeast Ohio) and test-re-test reliability is modest, therefore, caution should be taken when interpreting the results. Gojkovic (2007) also discussed the issue with small sample size. It was noted in the study that only a small number of subjects were used, and it was not an accurate sample of all teachers in Serbia. Daane et al. (2008) noted that a major limitation to their study was the low rate of participation from teachers. Researchers handed out a questionnaire to teachers and asked them to complete it, in their own time, and return it. Due to the lack of time given to complete the questionnaire, the majority of teachers did not return it back to the researchers. Burke and Sutherland (2004) also noted small sample size as being an issue. Their study only included 30 pre-service and 30 in-service teachers from a small borough of New York. While DeSimone and Parmar (2006) noted small sample size as a limitation, it was also noted that the small sample size made it difficult to randomize participants. It also made it difficult to obtain equal representation from the whole geographic region.
The most important limitation noted by Cook et al. was the evidence regarding validity is based on sociometric ratings conducted many years ago (30-35 years) in non-inclusive classrooms. In order to increase the rating scale’s reliability, authors suggest increasing the number of prompts and supervising the administration of rating scales.
Gojkovic (2007) stated that since his study was not longitudinal in nature, it was impossible to see if teacher attitudes changed over time. If the same teachers were observed and interviewed again in a few years, more information about the teachers, such as willingness to...