Special Education Placement in Public Schools
History of Public Schools
Before the 1840’s the education system was only available to wealthy people. Individuals such as Horace Mann from Massachusetts and Henry Barnard in Connecticut believed that schooling for everybody would help individuals become productive citizens in society. Through their efforts, free public education at the elementary level become assessable for all children in American by late 19th century. By 1918 all states passed laws that required children to attend elementary school. The Catholics were against this law, so they created their own private schools. In 1925 the Supreme Court passed a law that allowed children to attend private school rather than public school (Watson, 2008).
Facts on Special Education in Public Schools
During the late 1980’s and 1990’s the number of children with learning disabilities receiving special education services grew rapidly, but during 1998 and 2007 the number of children classified as having a LD has declined by 7% (Cortiella, 2009). “In 2007, 59% of students with LD spent 80% or more of their in-school time in general education classrooms. In 2000, that figure was just 40%” (Cortiella, 2009). In addition, students with disabilities are spending more time with students in traditional classroom settings. According to the Department of Education, “approximately 6 million children (roughly 10 percent of all school-aged children) receive special education services” (Pardini, 2011).
Students are placed into special education courses solely based on IQ.
Purpose of Paper
The study of IQ and how it operates in the education field has been argued through various theories. Theorist such as Howard Garner, Robert Steinberg, and David Perkins has provided expensive research from their point of view. Howard Garner developed theory of Multiple Intelligences, which includes eight intelligences. These intelligences are Bodily-kinesthetic, Interpersonal, Intrapersonal, Linguistic, Logical-mathematical, Musical, Naturalistic and Spatial. Garner believed “A single number (a score on an IQ test) cannot adequately represent the complex and diverse capabilities of a human being” (Oregon Technology in Education Council, 2011). Garner’s theory is related to how students learn and how they can develop skills in certain areas. These different types of intelligences are critical to the growth of students in the classroom.
Robert Steinberg’s Triarchiac Theory also contains multiple intelligences, such as Practical Intelligence, Creative Intelligence and Analytical Intelligences. These various intelligences adopts many all the same ideas as Howard Garner’s theory, but the difference is Steinberg does not focus on one specific type of intelligence, but he is more focused on helping the student enhance their skills. Steinberg believed that intelligence can be learned through more practice and study.
David Perkins explains IQ in three...