Speciation In Hawaiian Plant Hoppers Essay

1028 words - 5 pages

Scientists are continuously performing experiments testing the validity of hypotheses that derive from the core of evolutionary theory. Oliarus Polyphemus, the subterranean insect lineage that lives in lava tube caves on Hawaii Island, is ideal for studying the effects of natural selection and genetic drift. Known as Hawaiian cave planthoppers, these obligate cavernicoles live in the Hawaiian archipelago, which is subject to frequent volcanism and rapidly changing landscape dynamics. This leads to interconnected systems of lava tube caves and provides for a very unique environment. Hawaiian cave planthoppers are unique in that the different species in this lineage all live in extremely ...view middle of the document...

This experiment relies on the undisputed scientific basis of genetic drift and the concept that extrinsic factors, such as environmental changes, play a large role in influencing genetic evolution. However, controversy remains prevalent regarding the role of genetic drift in causing substantial differences between populations in reaction with various extrinsic forces. Thus, this experiment relies on the scientific landscape of the still-contentious founder-effect concept by Mayr. The scientific community has further developed this concept to include population structure and sexual selection. Carson’s founder-flush concept contradicts the founder-effect concept. The founder-flush concept claims a strong increase in species variability during the process of rapid population growth as the founding population grows to occupy a new habitat. According to this concept, the increased variability is a result of relaxed sexual selection deriving from a low availability of mating partners. After population growth, stronger sexual selection resumes, leading to population stabilization. According to this concept, the breakup of some co-adapted gene complexes, along with other random processes, can cause significant genetic differences in the new population. In addition, Templeton’s genetic-transilience theory also claims an increase in variation. Templeton’s theory is compatible with Carson’s founder -flush concept, but both are incompatible with Mayr’s founder-effect concept.
The experimental system used to address the question was manifold. The researchers utilized cave exploration, sampling, mapping, and age determination, morphology, acoustic recording and analyses, statistical analyses, molecular genetics and sequence analyses, phylogenetic analyses, and molecular clock analysis. 21 of the 30 caves known to include populations of O. polyphemus were systematically explored through the Hawaii Biological Survey. Individuals from 22 populations were studied for morphometric analysis, measuring nine parameters of the species. In addition, individuals were selected from 15 caves and brought to a laboratory that imitated their natural habitat. A male and female specimen from each population was placed together in order to record the vibrations of the mating calls, which were then assessed through ten time-pattern parameters. Statistical analysis was used to measure the confidence level of correlation between character variation and population age, amongst other parameters. Specimens from 18 caves were used for genetic comparison and analysis. Phylogenetic analysis and...

Find Another Essay On Speciation in Hawaiian Plant hoppers

a summary on deceptive orchids Essay

854 words - 4 pages , where there are successes there are also consequences. Some factors that orchid deception effects are: mating systems, the evolution of reproductive isolation, and the evolution of speciation. To understand these consequences is to better understand how these deceptive orchids have become successful. As previously mentioned orchids use two types of deception- food and sexual. The most common deception in orchids is food deception and it can be

Coevolution With Particular Reference to Herbivory

2185 words - 9 pages reciprocally by the following events: Plants, through occasional mutations and recombinations, produced a series of chemical compounds not directly related to their basic metabolic pathways. Some of these compounds, by chance, serve to reduce or destroy the palatability of the plant in which they are produced. Such a plant, protected from the attack of phytophagous animals, would in a sense have entered a new adaptive zone. Evolutionary radiation of plants

Host Plant Phenology and it's impact on Sympatric Speciation

2020 words - 8 pages preference, or reduction in predation/parasitism/competition. Short generation times and close associations with host plants make it likely that phytophagous insects experience rapid speciation in sympatry by shifts in host-plant utilization and subsequent adaptation to a novel host (Abrahamson & Weis, 1997). Two changes must occur: a genetic change in the host recognition process, and in the traits that affect survival on the new host. Models

Bob's Red Mill - Written for my Operations & Quality Management class, this paper deals with the methods and operations of Bob's Red Mill, a natural foods producer

3792 words - 15 pages , increased the plant size to a total of 82,000 square feet, prompted the need to employ 75 production employees to work three shifts and have ballooned the operation into a global exporter with revenues in the multi-million dollar range.BRM receives its grain by tractor-trailer delivery. Augers are used to empty it into storage tanks. The grain is piped into the production facility through a network of pipes. The grain is piped into hoppers which

Hawaii’s Big Island

1259 words - 6 pages segments. The Big Island isn’t going anywhere, so they’ll be plenty for you to see on another visit. Back in the late 1700s, Hawaii’s Big Island was separated into different islands. It was not uncommon to find them fighting against each other. By the year 1791, the islands came together to form what is now known as Hawaii’s Big Island. The Big Island is a vital part of Hawaiian history and culture. In fact, people still believe that there is a

Mercury Emissions

877 words - 4 pages of mercury emissions from coal-fired boiler flue gas is much more challenging problem due the low Mercury concentrations in utility boiler flue gas (typically 0.01 vs. 100+ ppm) and the chemical speciation of mercury in to different physical forms. An understanding of the physical and chemical apportionment of mercury in the system is essential in development and deployment of control systems. There are a number of currently available control

Why Evolution is True, by Jerry A. Coyne

2481 words - 10 pages that we did not evolve from other animals and were just created by a god. What is evolution? Evolution in modern terms is fairly easy to understand. Evolution is the theory that life on earth began with a single celled organism that lived more that 3.5 billion years ago that slowly evolved into many diverse creatures over time. When you break down this theory into sections you get 6 factors: evolution, gradualism, speciation, common ancestry

Geography

2187 words - 9 pages America, and the islands of Polynesia in the South Pacific. As a result of the processes of selective migration and evolution on these severely isolated islands, the native plant and animal species of Hawaii are found no where else in the world. These islands also were one of the last places on earth discovered, occupied and modified by humans( Britannica). The Hawaiian Islands are volcanic in origin. Each island is made up of at least one primary

Bioprospecting

785 words - 3 pages resources. The Hawaiian taro plant is definitely a scarcity problem because there are not many taro plants and if there were unlimited supplies of taro, the controversy between the University of Hawaii and the indigenous peoples would not occur."Bioprospecting stirs controversy", an article written by Associated Press Paul Elias, illustrates the growing problem over the patenting and bioprospecting of Hawaiian taro plants at the University of

Coqui Frogs in the Big Island

1308 words - 6 pages usually light brown or gray with a stripe down their back. Over the past two decades E. coqui have spread to the four main Hawaiian Islands and other places such as the Caribbean, Florida, and Louisiana (Singer et al). As of today, the Coquis intensive mating calls can be heard throughout every part of the Big Island during the night. While the Puerto Ricans love the sound of the Coquis, many locals in Hawaii dislike them due to the environmental and

Dream Job-a satirical look at Federal Grant Money and those who are elected to oversee the projects

859 words - 3 pages Washington, DC. OfficeOffice of Dennis HastertSpeaker of the House235 Cannon HOBWashington, D.C. 20515Dear Mr. Hastert,I was pleased to hear that you were interested in placing a rider for Oceanography Research of the Hawaiian Islands on the upcoming stimulus package. I've been involved in conducting Aquatic related research for the Federal Government for the past decade. Some of my more esteemed projects included the 'Study of Inoculation of

Similar Essays

The Origin Of Species Essay

657 words - 3 pages mechanisms that occur after fertilization. Postzygotic barriers include hybrid viability, hybrid fertility, and hybrid breakdown. The main role for these geographical isolations is to initiate speciation. There are also three other significant geographical barriers, genetic drift, bottleneck effect, and founder effect. Genetic drift is a change in apopulation's allele frequencies due to chance. The bottleneck effect is where natural disasters such as

Chapter 19: Speciation Essay

1414 words - 6 pages chromosome characteristic of the parental stock. It can result from improper separation of chromosomes during meiosis or mitosis.b. Speciation may have been instantaneous for many flowering plant species; about half of these species are polyploid. Many can self-fertilize or reproduce asexually, so their offspring can inherit the novel chromosome number. Polyploidy also may result in speciation when followed by cross-fertilization between plant

Celebrating Hawaii In Hawaii Without Discrimination

921 words - 4 pages In Hawaii, there is a school system called Kamehameha Schools. It is a very hard school to get in to; the admissions percentages are “6.4% to 14.7%” (Kamehameha Schools) . The first school was founded in 1884 by princess Bernice Pauli Bishop. It became successful with the vision to “keep Hawaiian culture alive by teaching younger generations” (Kamehameha Schools). Their policy is to give prefrence to native Hawaiians. Today, they have served

Ecological Succession Hawaii Essay

1259 words - 6 pages Have you ever wondered how the beautiful Hawaiian Islands transformed from barren volcanic rocks to magnificent green islands filled with forests, animals, and insects? It all happened through a complex process called Ecological Succession, in which organisms gradually populate land that was just created or has undergone a change or , such as the volcanic Hawaiian Islands. Ecological Succession is one of the forces shaping the Hawaiian Islands