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Species Conservation Issues In The Southeast Of England

2369 words - 9 pages

The increasing rate of environmental change is currently a global issue. This could be observed in measurements, such as a temperature fluctuation, rise of water level or could be observed physically such as population fluctuation. Most species vulnerable to such environmental change try to adapt to such changes. The rest die trying to or fly away avoiding them. The theory of Darwinian evolution is simply denoted stating survival of the fittest; making the weak eliminated. While conservationists struggle to conserve the genes that cannot cope with the rapid environmental changes, unexpected domination of species causes a lot of damages to nature. One such drastic outcome is the spreading and co- domination of invasive species. Invasive Alien species (IAS) also categorised under non native species is one massive conservation issues that Southeast England is currently facing.
Invasive species could not be defined simply, since the outcome of such species differentiates individually. IAS could be called as a species subspecies or lower taxon that is not naturally occurring at a given locality at a given time, yet introduced to that area, where they could compete or cause damage to species existing in the area, in short or long term. Several of these factors independently or collectively present in a species could make a species an IAS. Similarly, there is a group called Non-native species (NNS), those of which introduced by humans outside of their natural or native range. However Invasive Non-native Species (INNS ) are those which cause unwanted environmental or social impacts by spreading fast and becoming incredibly abundant in the environment (UNEP, 2005,). It is not well understood why some species become invasive and others don’t, but it is thought that non-native species are more likely to become invasive than native species (Vila´ et al., 2009).
Due to global trade and movement patterns, the impacts of alien invaders have grown globally (Hulme, 2009). Invasive alien species alter ecosystem processes decreasing native species abundance and richness through competition, predation, and hybridization (Blackburn et al., 2004). They also can change community structure (Hulme, 2009) and alter genetic diversity (Ellstrand & Schierenbeck, 2000) of naturally occurring species. In UK, for instance, the large majority of invasive species decreases diversity and change natural community structure, whereas few directly harm ‘threatened species’ (Vila´ et al., 2009). Increases in the number and spread of alien species appear to be directly proportional to increases in trade and transport, particularly over the last 25 years (Hulme et al., 2009). This issue of speeding of the IAS, was given concern in the Convention on Biological Diversity’s (CBD) and under ‘Threats to biodiversity’ (UNEP, 2005,). The 2010 Biodiversity Target is to achieve significant reduction in the current rate of biodiversity loss at the global, regional and national level, as a...

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