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Species Specific Pcr Based Assay For Detection Of Phomopsis Azadirachtae Causing Die Back Disease In Azadirachta Indica

618 words - 3 pages

Azadirachta indica (Neem) is an evergreen tree, found predominantly in most tropical countries and native to Indian sub-continent [34]. India is the leading exporter of neem seeds and products, with an annual production of 4,42,300 tons of dry fruits, 10,700 tons of neem oil and 4,25,800 tons of neem cake, the monetary value coming to around several million dollars [17]. Since time immemorial, A. indica is documented for its medicinal properties such as antibacterial [27], antiretroviral [43], antiarthritic, anti-inflammatory [26, 37] and antiulcer [28] properties. Even with all its bioactive components and multifarious biological activities, it is not free from diseases caused by microorganisms in general, fungi in particular. Some of the pathogens infecting neem are Xanthomonas azadirachtii (leaf spot); Alternaria alternata, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (leaf spot and blight), Rhizoctonia solani (leaf web blight); Oidium azadirachtae (powdery mildew); Corticium salmonicolor (pink disease); Phoma jolyana (twig blight and shot hole); Sclerotium rolfsii (blight and stem rot) and Ganoderma lucidum (root rot) [41, 46], P. azadirachtae (die-back) [39]. Die-back disease caused by P. azadirachtae, is a serious disease destroying the ever green canopy of neem trees and thereby resulting in 100% loss of fruit production in severely infected trees [37, 10]. This could lead to huge annual loss in revenue. The symptoms of die-back of neem are wilting of leaves, dying of terminal branches, and rotting of fruits [37, 39]. P. azadirachtae is a deuteromycetes fungus, which belongs to class coelomycetes. It produces two types of conidia, alpha and beta inside the fruiting body called pycnidia. It has branched, septate, profuse and colorless mycelia which turns pale brown later. The fungus affects leaves, twigs and inflorescence, irrespective of age, size and height of the tree [37]. Genus Phomopsis is reported to have wide phenotypic variability [44, 47], thereby making morphology based identification...

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Species Specific Pcr Based Assay For Detection Of Phomopsis Azadirachtae Causing Die Back Disease In Azadirachta Indica

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