Speech Communities

1490 words - 6 pages

In the New Merriam-Webster Dictionary a speech community is defined as a socially distinct group that develops a dialect; a variety of language that diverges from the national language in vocabulary, pronunciation, and grammar. Gumperz, Dorian, Fishman, Labov, Hymes, and Corder helped define a speech community. This essay will touch on the basis of multiple aspects of a speech community depending on their similarities and differences as well as how the concepts of these speech communities relate to such articles written by Heller and Jackson. Speech communities are formed by language and social behaviors. Linguistics defines a speech community through many ways. All speech communities have a set of grammatical rules, phonology, syntax, and lexicons. As well as having social norms in which they share through actions. By a person's speech it can give an idea of a person's background in ways of where they are from, how educated one is, as well is if they are friendly or unsociable. Now linguistic acculturation explains the process when two or more cultures collide for a long time they begin assimilate each other's language. In the most extreme cases of language shifts, pidgins and creoles are developed. Besides linguistic acculturation, the situation of bilinguals, some abandon their native tongue for another. Other bilinguals have a language used within the home different from outside of the home. This mostly refers to dialectal behavior. The second concept is superposed. This occurs when there are different activities going on in the same group. Now Gumperz defines a speech community as "any human aggregate characterized by regular and frequent interaction by means of a shared body of verbal signs and set of from similar aggregates by significant differences in language use" (219). Gumperz feels as if people should share the same norm, communicate regularly, and share verbal signs. Besides Gumperz definition there are three other definitions to a speech community in which Dorian evaluates against her own beliefs of a speech community. In Dorian's article she proposes that in these three definitions from Gumperz, Labov, and Fishman does not include a third group. Dorian categorized this third group as the low proficiency semi-speakers and near passive bilinguals. Dorian stresses the importance of including the marginal speakers. As for Fishman's definition it is the most like Gumperz. Fishman defines the speech community as 'A speech community is one, all of whose members share at least a single speech variety and the norms for it's appropriate use' (1971:232). In Fishman's description, he touches on the ideas of social norms similar to Gumperz. Labov definition is as follows: 'The speech community is not defined by any marked agreement in the use of language elements, so much as by participation in a set of shared norms; these norms could be observed in overt types of evaluative behavior, and by the uniformity of...

Find Another Essay On Speech Communities

Martin luther king Essay

1211 words - 5 pages Rational In class we had the opportunity to look at historical speeches that were highly influential, we then analyzed them to recognise some literary techniques. We looked at many speeches but the “I have a dream” speech by Martin Luther King really interested me. I had the desire to make a context where I go further look into the literary techniques used in a his speech that affected the civil rights movement. I then decided to write a

EOC (Ethnography of communication) Essay

743 words - 3 pages who know and use the code, a channel, a setting, a message form, a topic, and an event created by transmission of the message" (p. 312). EOC can be used as a means by which to study the interactions among members of a specific culture or, what�Gerry Philipsen�(1975) calls a "speech community." Speech communities create and establish their own speaking codes/norms. Philipsen (1975) explains that "Each community has its own

race in america

812 words - 4 pages numbers game. the more police offers arrested people on drug charges the more federal money was sent to there departments. Which intern had officers target poor communities often being communities that were inhabited by a mass population of blacks. She comments that “the longevity of the drug war is the targeting of poor communities.” She wraps up her speech with a call to action of her predominately white audience, leaving them with varying

How can the power of words bring about a positive change in a community?

1119 words - 5 pages Negros before the law and meant in respect to defending ones home and self in self defence, what applied to whites now, in practice and not just in word, apply to African Americans as well.” Clarence Darrow’s speech, along with Henry Sweet’s acquittal, is now considered huge milestone in the civil rights movement. Another example of the power of words bringing change to large communities is President John Fitzgerald Kennedy’s inaugural speech in

Sociolinguistic Field: The Nerd Community

1685 words - 7 pages 1.What problems might exist for sociolinguistic studies that group speakers into speech communities, and how does the Communities of Practice model address these issues? One of the first speech communities` problems stated by Bucholtz is that it is a theory that can only be applied to a sociolinguistic field .It is not useful to any other related discipline as its focus limits to study language and ignores all other elements that are crucial in

The Black Power Speech Given by Stokely Carmichael

1577 words - 6 pages aid the other communities rather than harm them. Mr. Carmichael keyed the use of the term “Black Power” through his later speeches. Throughout the speech given by Mr. Carmichael he uses the “Us-Them” comparisons as defined by Martin Buber. The “Us-Them” attitude ,as defined by Buber, is when a group of people thinks that they are more correct or have more rights to something over another group of people or race. “In a much larger view

Rhetorical Analysis of Robert Bullard’s How Race Affected the Federal Government’s Response to Katrina

1196 words - 5 pages Dr. Robert Bullard is a researcher, activist and author who pioneered a branch of social science known as Environmental Justice. His efforts have been to fight toxic dumping in minority communities by bringing wide attention to this issue. He has been referred to as the "Father of Environmental Justice". (Bullard 1) This speech, “How Race Affected the Federal Government’s Response to Katrina” uses Hurricane Katrina and several other disasters

Offensive Speech Should be Allowed

2716 words - 11 pages bigots and racists, which is silencing those who are different? The challenge, as Paul McMasters put it, "'is to achieve civility in discourse without imposing conformity in thought" (175). Speech codes are a temporary solution to a more permanent problem. Instead, the focus should be placed on eliminating bigotry and bias from our communities. Susan Gellman writes, "toleration of all kinds of ideas, including those that are harmful to society

Movie report: Invictus Qualities of leadership - COM 410 - Assignment

1259 words - 6 pages very motive, which, once again shows his great communication skill. The content of the speech is remarkable as well. Mandela discouraged the “revenge”. He encourages his followers to surprise the white communities “with restraint”. He shares his values and integrity with his followers. Moreover, he has a strategic vision. He knows that white communities love Springbok. Springbok is a symbol to them. When the symbol is removed, the white

The Mayan Languages of Guatemala and Mexico

1219 words - 5 pages FIU Data Analysis Essay The Mayan languages of Guatemala and Mexico can be called a “linguistic area” (Study Guide, 2014, p. 102) because they are geographically in close proximity and the “languages” of the speech communities there would “have been spoken side by side for many generations” (ibid). Due to long-term contact between speech communities in this linguistic area, bilingualism and language mixing in the speeches of the close-knit

Free speech presentation

779 words - 3 pages will remain out of political and social debate. The company defended donations and claims donations have been misunderstood. Chick-fil-A's corporate commitments may be focused on programs that may educate youth, strengthen families, and support communities. The statement contrasts Alderman Moreno's statement that the company agreed to stop funding hate speech organizations. Chick-fil-A has not confirmed or denied the latest twist to the

Similar Essays

Critiquing Presidential Speeches La 300 Assignment

599 words - 3 pages help the victims over in New York City and Washington D.C. which his actions was already been made before his speech. While President Bush speaks that his hand gestures controlled and minimized, he sounded was very conversational and motivational to American people such as “I have directed the full resources of our intelligence and law enforcement communities to find those responsible and to bring them to justice.” He concluded with strong

Stanley Fish's View On Free Speech With A Personal Opinion

831 words - 4 pages In the essay in his recent book, "There's No Such Thing as Free Speech and it's aGood Thing Too," Fish argues that free speech "is not an independent value, but apolitical prize," and any differences, which the courts have drawn between, protected andunprotected expressions are "malleable." Like any other concept, the principle of freespeech is, for Fish, "inherently nothing," but one more noise in the "din and confusion ofpartisan struggle

Bloo Blaa Essay

643 words - 3 pages Universities and colleges are considered to be communities. In recent years, many campuses have sought to become more diverse by attracting students and faculty from groups that were historically underrepresented. The campus atmosphere brought by new and ethnically or religiously different peers can overpoweringly affect an institution's prolonged diversity. Intolerance to those who differ from the majority may chip away at the confidence of

Social Media, Free Speech And The Judicial Legacy Of The Tinker Case

1467 words - 6 pages student’s freedom of speech and a school’s responsibility to provide an appropriate learning environment. Over 40 years ago the United States Supreme Court issued a landmark decision that defined student free speech rights within the framework of the public schools, but the Tinker decision, or any of United States Supreme Court’s other student free speech rulings, could not anticipate the impact of student off-campus use of the Internet would have