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Spherical Chitosan Nanoparticles From The Squid Pen Of Todarodes Pacificus

1850 words - 8 pages

Introduction
Naturally occuring polymer compounds which are formed by linking together several molecules as polysaccharides. One among such biological polymer is chitin and its deacetylated derivative, chitosan have attracted significant interest in research for biomedical, food and various chemical industries. Chitin is monomer of (1→ 4) –linked 2- acetamido-2 deoxy- D-glucose. It is the second most abundant polysaccharide next to cellulose and nitrogen containing compound next to protein on earth. Chitin exists in three crystal forms: α, β and γ respectively. Rhombic α-chitin where its chain arranged in parallel direction is present in the shells of crabs, shrimps and other arthropods. γ- chitin is extracted from microorganisms in combinations of α-chitin and β –chitin. Monoclinic β –chitin is found in squid pen (Susana et al., 2008)
The refuses of the Sea Food Processing Industry have enormous amount of shells of crabs, shrimps and molluscs species. This waste is normally affect the human health and pollute the environment too. They are the primary raw materials for chitin and chitosan production. The extraction of chitin from these hard materials needs chemical process for the removal of Calcium carbonate, protein and some minerals. The shells also contain considerable amount of colour compounds such as carotenoids, astaxanthin etc. The high amount of acid and alkaline is required for the elimination of these compounds by step by step process such as deminieralization (dilute acid medium) deprotenization (an alkaline medium) and decolourization. Squid pen is also a raw material usually treated as waste in squid processing industries and not converted to chitin in industrial level. Due to the presence of low calcium carbonate in squid pen, acid treatment is not necessary. Hence, chitin extractions from squid pens reduce production cost and prevent environmental pollutants. In addition, β –chitin from squid pen shows better reactivity, solubility and swelling than α-chitin due to much weaker molecular hydrogen bonding. Biopolymers produced from squid pens possess high physicochemical as well as functional properties than from other crustacean sources. Because of their excellent biodegradability, biocompactibility, nontoxicity and bioactivity it developed a strong position in theranostics (Hui- Chia Yang et al., 2010). Polymer nanoparticle is a reliable vehicle for site-specific drug targeting controlled release and maintains the stability of liable molecules. Chitosan nanoparticle based drug delivery is a boon for biomedical application. Chitosan is a positively charged compound interact with negatively charged groups showing mucoadhesive behaviour which induce to open tight junction and allow the paracellular transport of drugs, proteins and genetic molecules in artificial organs and for immune prophylaxis (Hallaj et al., 2011; Nahaei et al.,2012). The unique character of the nanoparticles for their small size and quantum size effect could...

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