In everyday life, we use our memory widely to carry out daily tasks. Memory is a topic that has become a primary focus in investigation for many years. According to Goldstein (2011), memory is a process involved in retaining, retrieving, and using information about stimuli, images, events, ideas, and skills after the original information is no longer present. Memory stores and retrieves information. The Atkinson-Shiffrin model is a theory of human memory that was proposed by Richard Atkinson and Richard Shiffin in 1968. The theory labelled as “stage theory” is widely accepted and the focus of the model is on how memory is stored. There are three main structure features that contain different physiological properties namely sensory memory, short term memory and long term memory (refer to Figure 1 in Appendix 1).
The first stage in modal model of memory is sensory memory. Before information is stored in short term memory and long term memory, the sensory store stores the information initially. The incoming information was retaining by sensory memory half a second (Goldstein, 2005). In sensory memory, information enters the human information processing system through a variety of channels connected with the different senses. A variety of sources of information are available in the environment such as light, sound, image, hot, but only the electrical impulses is processed by the brain. Perceptual systems operate on the information to generate perceptions. The human body has sensory receptor cells that enable transmitted signal to impulse and finally detected by the brain. Due to the limited processing ability, most of the incoming information are not attended immediately, thus only the certain information is attended. Subsequently, memory is created in the proses of transduction.
. The iconic memory is information from the visual sensory which hold the information in short period (Sternberg, 2006). Iconic memory stores the information in image form. The visual image represents an information (Sternberg, 2006). For example, when a lighter sparker is played and a circle is drawn in the air. At the same time the circle is seen briefly but actually it not a circle it just a point. The circle is seen because human visual memory retains the point. The persistence of vision is the retention of the light perception in human mind. Another sensory store is echoic memory. Echoic memory retains the information from the sound and retaining a few second after original stimulus (Goldstein, 2005). Sensory memory records many incoming information but it retains the information just for a few second. Cognitive psychologists noted that sensory memory is important to human due to the fact that sensory memory allows human to gather the information for processing and fills up the blank when stimulation is fitful. When the initial processing is going on, sensory memory retains information briefly (Goldstein, 2005).
Sensory memory then sends some information to short-term...