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Stages Of In Vitro Ferlization Essay

1276 words - 6 pages

In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) is a procedure in which an egg (oocyte) from a woman’s ovaries is removed and separately fertilized with male sperm in a laboratory before being implanted into the woman’s fallopian tubes. 1 2 The first stage of IVF is called superovulation. Follicles are structures within which the oocyte develops, in order to retrieve multiple follicles several hormone and drug combinations are administered. Consequently, the ovary stops function and allows the follicles to ripen at the same time when stimulated therefore providing an increased number of eggs to harvest. Follicles are considered mature after 8 to 9 days and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is administered ...view middle of the document...

For women under 35, the success rate using fresh embryos is 46.3% whereas the success rate of frozen embryos is 39.3%. As women age, there is lower the chance of a successful pregnancy in both fresh and frozen embryos.(Figure 2) 7

When concerning the health of IVF children, studies have reported an elevated blood pressure and problems with cardio metabolic health due to the hormone regimen used to increase egg production. 9 The risk of birth effects of single born IVF children are relatively small as it is 1-2% greater than naturally conceived single born children. 6 IVF technologies have allowed screening of the embryo for genetic diseases and gender before implantation. Subsequently, couples have undergone IVF to specifically choose the preferred gender, and only have said embryos implanted. This is considered morally inappropriate if the gender selection is for non-medical reasons, such as a gender which is not susceptible to a particular genetic disease. Sex selection could result in further distortion of the male to female ratio where there is substantial preference over a gender. Currently, the male to female ratio in China, and some parts of India, is 1:2. 10 Controversy over the use of IVF is prevalent, particularly within the Roman Catholic Church who opposes IVF, egg donation and surrogacy as they view it as unnatural. 11
The IVF procedure is advantageous to the user as it allows them to conceive a child. This allows couples who are infertile, have fertility problems or unable to conceive naturally to have a child with their genetic make-up or from donor eggs. Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis is also beneficial to people who undergo IVF. The process eliminates oocytes that have genetic abnormalities. Pregnancies that involve dominant or recessive gene defects, sex-linked conditions and chromosome rearranges can result in still birth, miscarriage or with the birth of a child with a phenotypic abnormality such as Down’s syndrome or Cystic Fibrosis. 12 However, IVF still has many risks and disadvantages associated with it as well as advantages.
IVF has many disadvantageous qualities related with it including success rates, multiple pregnancies, health risks, participation restrictions and parental legal issues. IVF cannot guarantee a successful pregnancy, only 25% of initial IVF cycles result in a live birth. The drugs administered during IVF can cause side effects such as Ovarian Hyper Stimulation Syndrome (OHSS) which is referred to as the most detrimental risk in IVF to the woman’s health. Due to increased capillary permeability during the stimulation process, it can cause a fluid shift from intravascular space to the third space and cystic enlargement of the ovaries. The syndrome can occur in 5% of the women undergoing IVF. Without in serious cases OHSS can result in life-threatening complications and death. 13 To increase the...

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