Stages Of Psycho Sexual Development Essay

1629 words - 7 pages

Humans will pass through various stages of growth throughout their lives. This is known as development, and according to Louw (2007), development is defined as all transformations experienced by people throughout their life span. One of the developments that go through by human is psycho-sexual development suggested by Sigmund Freud as he believed that “human development involves the transfer of libidinal energy from one erogenous zone to another” (Rathus, 2012, p. 342). As stated by S. Dave and A. Dave (2005), psychosexual development is “a dynamic process encompassing biological and psychological change affecting one’s sexuality through the ages” (p. 42). There are five psycho-sexual stages of development that will be experienced by people, which are oral stage, anal stage, phallic stage, latency stage and lastly, genital stage (refer to Figure 1 in Appendix 1).
The first stage of human psycho-sexual development is undergoing oral stage. As stated by Sigelman and Rider (2014), this stage occurs from a child’s birth until the age of one. The erogenous zone or the source of sexual energy in this stage is the mouth (Louw, 2007). As mentioned by Rathus (2007), oral activities will provide children with sexual pleasure in conjunction with nourishment. The examples of oral activities among children in this stage are sucking, biting, and spilling. During this stage, children will spend most of their times with their mothers, or their main caretakers. Thus this stage is mainly determining on how children connect to the mothers or their main caretakers and if a child fails to go through this stage, he or she is has been in hunger or physically abused (Neukrug, 2012). A child who experiences cessation of breast feeding which is known as early weaning will become frustrated, while a child who goes through excessive gratification will consistently expect that he or she is able to get what he or she wants (Rathus, 2012). Here, oral fixation will occur that “causes long-term problems, such as overeating, drinking, smoking and over dependency on others” (Pressley & McCormick, 2007, p. 137). However, Rathus (2013) stated that “there is no research evidence that nail biting and smoking cigarettes are signs of conflict experienced during early childhood” (p. 9).
Secondly, humans experience the anal stage at the age of one until three (Neukrug, 2012). As stated by Louw (2007), “the anus becomes the major erogenous zone” (p. 46) and thus, sexual pleasure is gained “from the physical sensation of evacuating the bowels, but there is also the secondary reward of praise from the parents” (S. Dave & A. Dave, 2005, p. 44). This indicates that children obtain their pleasures from the removal of faeces and urine and the praises given by parents for removing them successfully. The body wastes removal is managed by the contraction and relaxation of the muscles around anal or rectal area (Rathus, 2007). During this stage, Honig (2000) mentioned that parents or the...

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