Starch And The Glycemic Index Essay

719 words - 3 pages

Starch digestion generally occurs in the small intestine by the action of α-amylase, dextrinase, and glucoamylase in non-ruminant animals. Starch granules interact with other chemical components such as lipids and proteins adhered to starch in the endosperm after reaching the small intestine of mono-gastric animals. Chewing also makes a difference on starch digestibility, increases carbohydrate availability by reducing food structure. It also mixes food fragments with saliva and converts them into a well-lubricated semi-solid bolus form and helps to swallow food for effective digestion. Only a limited extent of starch digestion takes place in segments of the alimentary canal before the small intestine.
The interactions of starch with other compounds and the effect of structural features of starch on starch digestibility are not fully revealed yet. Several in vitro studies have revealed a negative correlation between the amylose\amylopectin ratio with starch digestion (Bornet et al., 1990; Xue et al., 1996; Topping et al., 1997; Zhou and Kaplan, 1997; Akerberg et al., 1998; Ankrah et al., 1999; Bednar et al.,2001; Ito et al., 1999; Saito et al., 2001; Abdel-Aal et al., 2002,).
Surface proteins of starch granule might be considered other factor influencing starch digestibility. As there is a relationship exists between surface area and starch volume, thus size of starch granules might also affect starch digestibility in raw materials. The contact between substrate and enzyme decreases as size of the granule increases. It has been reported that cereals with small granules such as oats and rice have greater starch digestibility than larger starch granules such as maize, wheat, and potato (Manelius and Bertoft, 1996; Bednar et al., 2001). But this is not the case for cooked rice. The pseudocrystalline structures of starch granule of cooked rice get disrupted, gelatinized which cause swelling of the amorphous regions of starch granules. This in turn, forces the pseudocrystalline region’s molecules to dissociate and becomes more susceptible to enzymatic digestion as the swelling and dispersion progresses. The relationship between molecular structure and starch nutritional fractions with cooked rice starch has been reported in few studies (Benmoussa, Moldenhaure, & Hamaker 2007; Sasaki et al., 2009). It has been found that higher amylose content was...

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