Introduction to self-efficacy
Self-efficacy has been studied extensively since Albert Bandura first published his theory in 1977. In social situations, individuals have varying perceptions of their ability to successfully interact with others.(Bandura 1977) In other words, their self-efficacy beliefs reflect their level of social confidence (Bandura, 1977). The possession of strong self-efficacy beliefs has been related to positive outcomes in academic achievement, career choice and also to reduce levels of depression (Bandura, 1977). Self-efficacy is defined as a person’s internal ability to successfully meet the challenges that one faces (Bandura 1977). Bandura (1986) stated that self-efficacy is not the actual ability to complete tasks but the person’s perception of their ability to complete that task. The implications of self-efficacy in the social domain have also been related to constructs such as social anxiety, shyness, and self-esteem (Smith & Betz, 2000).
Bandura’s theoretical model of perceived self-efficacy beliefs includes proposed sources of efficacy information in addition to postulated outcome variables, which include approach versus avoidance, persistence, and performance. This study will also examine self-efficacy as a person’s perception and not their actual abilities. Self-efficacy is also considered a resource as it helps in a person’s ability to cope and as their ability to cope increases so does their levels of self-efficacy (Bandura 1977). The perception of self-efficacy also is the perception of one’s control over their environment and this helps a person navigate life’s challenges in a positive manner (Bandura, 1997; Smith & Betz, 2002).
Practicality of Self-Efficacy
This confidence or self-efficacy is a person’s ability to take knowledge and skill and then change it into a positive coping strategy (Nebbitt, 2009, p.346). A person can get this confidence from a number of places including a positive perception of community, which can help increase a person’s levels of self-efficacy (Nebbitt, 2009, p.346). Although a person says they have higher levels of self-efficacy, this may not be accurate or produce the desired results, but it may aid in the motivation to improve performance and self-efficacy (Bandura 1997). Bandura also stated the self-efficacy statements are not influenced by the desire to appear socially acceptable. This is due to a person gaining knowledge about his or her abilities, not based on thinking but on an evaluation of numerous past insistences of achievements or failures (Bandura, 1997). These achievements or failures for young adults are experienced mostly through school and various social interactions.
Connection between Self-Efficacy and depression
In addition, the association between social self-efficacy and depressive symptomatology has been well- established, describing individuals with higher levels of perceived social self-efficacy demonstrating lower levels of depression and self-esteem...