Stats Notes Essay

5010 words - 20 pages

Lesson 7One sample to population T testsOne-Sample Significant Difference TestsA great deal of inferential statistics is about using procedures to help us infer that a difference does or does not exist between two situations. Knowing whether two things are different allows us to make reliable, valid decisions about that information. How different does a result need to be before we can call it significant (or important)? Another way to ask this question is to ask "how great must the difference between two groups be before we can conclude that the difference is reliable and real, and not just a fluke of the specific samples we have examined?" For example, you know that a mean score of 10 is different from a mean score of 11. But in certain situations these values might be so close to one another that for all intents and purposes, we can act as though they are the same value. The question is then, what is a big enough difference that will allow us to act as though the two values are in fact different? The answer to this question depends on several factors. For a finding to be statistically significant (big enough), it must be reliable and replicable (repeatable) - you must be able to find it again using the same techniques with a different sample. In order to decide that a result is replicable (and can be generalized to the population) we must use procedures called significance tests.When you find a "statistically significant difference," this does not mean that you have found "proof" of something. Proof is for courts - in statistics, we say we have supporting evidence for a hypothesis. Also, finding a statistically significant difference may not be of practical use - for example, you may find a statistically significant difference between men and women in their math scores but this is of little use in selection for a job or for choosing candidates for a training program because the difference may be in the means but is too small to be applied to individuals. We would say this difference is not "practically significant" even though it was found to be statistically (mathematically) significant.A significance test is basically a procedure. Part of the procedure is plugging numbers into a formula. The result is a single number that can tell you whether the difference you have observed is probably different enough to be considered reliable and not due to chance.There are many different types of tests that you might use, depending on the type of data that you are using, the number of groups that you are comparing, and the relationship you are attempting to explore. If data are collected using interval/ratio scales, then the tests that you use will are called parametric tests. If the data is nominal or ordinal, you use nonparametric tests. Parametric tests are based on a) data parameters, b) data that are assumed to be normally distributed, and c) the assumption that the standard deviations of the samples being compared are very similar. Nonparametric...

Find Another Essay On Stats Notes

Social Media and News Essay

1574 words - 6 pages made possible by satellite technology. Almost immediately, networks began broadcasting scenes of the brutal crackdown all over the globe. Jennifer Holt, writing for the Museum of Broadcast Communication, notes that although the western world already knew of China’s blatant disregard for human rights, “never before had television so graphically exposed the abuse of individual rights and disregard for human life that took place there.” (Holt) As a

A Stand Still Culture in an Ever Changing World

2016 words - 8 pages intellectual public figures and overshadowing them with celebrities and their opinions. College graduates in 2008 reportedly know “little more about public affairs than did the average high school graduate in the 1940s,” Ungar notes that this generation is “substantially less knowledgeable about public affairs, despite the proliferation of sources of information” (Ungar 308). Both the media and those within general education are at fault in these

summary of piece

681 words - 3 pages countries such as Mexico. He notes, Mexico because it is a country known for its high involvement in drug dealing and the infamous cartel. Mentioning the gun battle in Nuevo Laredo, he fears that this may soon be the fate of cities such as Toronto and Vancouver in Canada if this issue is not resolved. He recommends that political interference within the black market drug trade is not only a waste of money, but also counterproductive as he understood

Business and IT Strategy

2115 words - 8 pages database to store comments and notes, along with the actual design patterns of costumes, which is used for requirement planning of costumes prior to the touring shows, while the make-up application helped in the storage and retrieval of information related to the make-up processes easier. During the preparation stage, the custom application Kin-Cirque is made use of to track the physical fitness of the artists by fitness trainers. During the

Reasons Why We Should Require Digitalization of College Textbooks

1458 words - 6 pages fact, e-books liberate ideas.” (2013) He is making the point that it is the content of the books that is important, the ideas, concepts and thoughts, and that the ability to access them in a new efficient way is most freeing. Several times he stats “I’m not advocating that we get rid of the good and valuable ideas, thoughts, or words in books – only that we transfer them to (and have students absorb them through) another form” (2013). The

Crime Statistics: the Ways They are Collected, Collated, Used and Their Effectiveness

1866 words - 7 pages they are used and how effective they are. References Australian Institute of Criminology, AIC, 2012. Australian Crime: Facts & Figures 2011. 1st ed. Canberra, ACT: Australian Institute of Criminology. Pp. 1 – 44. Explanatory notes - Bureau of Crime Stats And Research New South Wales. 2014. Explanatory notes - Bureau of Crime Stats And Research New South Wales. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.bocsar.nsw.gov.au

Saskatchewan doctor shortages: Humanism vs. Structuralism

1380 words - 6 pages (“Saskatchewan ER,” 2013). Stats Canada has showed that the number of physicians is at a historic high, yet Saskatchewan still face shortages (Howlett, 2013). There are many possibilities to consider when looking for a cause of this problem. Typically work force problems are looked at as an issue of supply and demand (Dauphinee, 2005). Workforce numbers in Canada as a whole are monitored from several databases (Dauphinee, 2005). But when predicting

The Secret Society Of The Hungry

1242 words - 5 pages other average girls. The author also notes how she identifies herself. “She is, in her terms, ''an ana''” ( Udovitch 19). She labels herself much like how the US labeled immigrants and freed slaves in the past using Jim Crow laws. They, slaves and immigrants, were equal but, separate. They had their own form of society between their own groups and didn't associate with others unlike them. They isolated themselves. Claire is doing this by

Argument/position paper on social networking sites

1170 words - 5 pages upload recent pictures of yourself. I can also write a blog about anything that is happening in my life or maybe even a poem that I have written. Ashley Imsand, a 21-year-old senior at Auburn University in Alabama, uses Facebook to trade notes and pictures with old high-school friends. According to her she says that "they're spread all across the country." Ashley also says that "it's a neat way to share what's going on in each other's lives. You

Network System- A through research on a product - Bus 341 - Assignment

3596 words - 15 pages - Youtube Stats Summary/User Statistics for NCIXCOM 19 Introduction This report will analyze the current marketing strategy of Netlink Computer Incorporated, generating a set of recommendations for future improvements and development in key strategic areas. Netlink Computer Incorporated is a national computer and electronics retailer based in Richmond, British Columbia, that operates under the name NCIX via retail and online distribution channels

The Controversy of the Manipulation of Advertising

1411 words - 6 pages false ideal and are going as far as altering body parts to reach the unreachable norm. She further supports her argument by stating more facts, stats, and surveys. Kilbourne complains that women are “dismembered in commercials, separated into body parts in need of change or improvement”(239). She reiterates that it is to reach this level of beauty and is not viable to maintain. Kilbourne’s last point is that advertising influences sexual

Similar Essays

Dreams Essay

987 words - 4 pages clear. Then, after a short while in cycle two we begin to get into cycle three, which is an even deeper sleep than theprevious two. Your vital stats are slowed down and it is very difficult to wake them. On most people you have to make a loud noise or repeat their name over and over in order to get them out of this stage of sleep. After an extensive sleeping period you finally reach cycle four, and this is known as the deepest stage of sleep of all

It's Time To End Childhood Poverty

725 words - 3 pages and Judith R. Smith. American Sociological Review , Vol. 63, No. 3 (Jun., 1998) , pp. 406-423. . “Poverty Facts and Stats.” Global Issues. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Mar. 2014. . “Providing Help for Children.” UNICEF. 06 Apr. 2014 . “The Effects of Poverty on Children”.  Jeanne Brooks-Gunn and Greg J. Duncan. The

This Essay Is Critiquing The Work Of James Baldwin In His Short Writing "On The Painter Beauford Delaney ". It Is A Rhetoric Analyisis Of His Work

558 words - 2 pages on Delaney's appreciation for the light. His ability to utilize light as a tool to enhance his artwork, is a skill that Baldwin praises. The light that is available is scarce, like that of Alaska, and Delaney learns to capture the light into his paintings. Baldwin notes how Delaney has the light "trapped in it and struggles upward, rather like grass pushing upward through the cement." Similar to a child playing with a kaleidoscope, hoping to catch

Infant Mortality Within The United States

3569 words - 14 pages those in the country as a whole," and Washington’s ratio of population to medical doctors is nearly twice the national average (15, p 5-7). In addition, he notes that "higher food stamp recipience closely corresponds with lower usage of prenatal medical services (15, p 14);" thus government aid is not promoting necessary maternal practices. In fact, 466 babies each year are born within the United States to mothers who either started prenatal