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Adult And Embryonic Stem Cells Essay

818 words - 4 pages

We must start at the basic, what are cells? Cells are the basic unit of living things. We all have trillions upon trillions of cells that make up our body. Our body has three main cell types which are: Ectoderm, Mesoderm, and Endoderm. Ectoderm cells are in the skin, hair, eyelids and nerves cells for bones, Mesoderm cells are in muscles, tendons blood vessels and kidney construct the linings of two tubes within the body and Endoderm cells are in digestive tubes and respiratory tube. There are also stem cells.” Stem cells are unspecialized cells that have two defining properties: the ability to differentiate into other cells and the ability to self-regenerate.” (Kochar)There are different types of stem cells; embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells. Embryonic stem cells are meant for growth. Some come different parts of our bodies and also known as building block cells. Adult stem cells repair cells. Alexander Maksimov, Russian histologist, who discovered and forwarded the existence of stem cells as part of his theory of hematopoiesis in 1908. He came up with the term stem cells.
Adult stem cells serve to replace specialized cells if it needed. These cells cannot reproduce like embryonic stem cells. Unlike Embryonic stem cells, these cells cannot make all cell types in the organism, though they can generate multiple types. They are specialized for specific body parts. There are 3 different types of Adult Stem cells, hematopoietic stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells and Endodermal stem cells. Hematopoietic stem cells are meant to replace blood cells. They are the most important stem cells because they construct the body. Mesenchymal stem cells are for the replace cartilage, bone, tendons, heart muscle, nerves, ligaments, hearing cells and muscles. Endodermal stem cells replace digestive linings. These cells can be harvested during a bone marrow transplant. Adult stem cell extraction can be used for cancer patients.
Embryonic stem cells are cells that come from the embryo when it is a blastocyst. The stem cells reproduce for an indefinite period of time. Depending on the culture conditions, they can be made into a variety of specialized cells. Umbilical cord stem cells are another form on unspecialized cells. They are in umbilical cord and can also form any specialized cell. Pluripotent stem cells are often celled 'true' stem cells because they have the potential to transform into almost any cell in the body. Under the right circumstances, a stem cell that is harvested from an embryo can produce almost all of the cells in the...

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