The article I chose to summarize discusses many different ways to control antibiotic resistance. I thought it was a good article for me to read so I can adapt some of these strategies in my practice as a nurse practitioner. Healthcare has been forever changed with the discovery of antibiotics. Although considered one of the biggest discoveries in the last century, there has been less work done to create new antibiotics in more recent years. Once antibiotic use became widespread, resistance to these drugs has been slowly brewing. This antibiotic resistance has taken its toll on healthcare and something needs to be done to combat this problem. Encouraging the discovery of new antibiotics, preventing the overprescribing of antibiotics currently on the market, and decreasing the time needed to get lab results are just a few ways to combat antibiotic resistance. Healthcare providers need to play a major role in fixing this problem.
This article discusses how antibiotics work. It is important to understand how antibiotics work so we can better understand how to control antibiotic resistance. Each antibiotic works differently, but they all do the same thing in the end and that is to stop the bacteria from living and growing. This can be done by stopping the cell wall of the bacteria from forming properly which will lead to the cell filling with water and dying due to the membrane rupturing. Another way antibiotics work is by preventing the synthesis of protein. Proteins are needed for chemical reactions and cell division so inhibiting the production of protein will stop cell division so no new bacteria will grow, but also allow the already existing bacteria to die. Antibiotics can also disrupt DNA synthesis. This will cause cell death and prevent cell division since DNA replication is necessary for cell division. Gram-negative bacteria contain their electron transport system in the plasma membrane. Some antibiotics will interfere with the function of the plasma membrane which will cause problems with the transport of certain nutrients and cause cell death. It is important to identify the pathogen causing the infection so the proper antibiotic can be prescribed. There are basically four classification groups for bacteria: 1) Gram-positive, 2) Gram-negative, 3) anaerobes, and 4) atypical. Each of these different types of bacteria can be found in different areas of the body and are associated with different type of infections. Knowing the common cause of infection in the different areas helps providers in deciding the proper course of treatment.
When bacteria are able to withstand the effects of the antibiotic, the bacteria is deemed to be antibiotic resistant. There are one or more systems in the bacterial cell that may cause this resistance. One may prevent the antibiotics from every entering the cell, another might destroy the antibiotic once it enters the cell, another system may inhibit the antibiotic activity within the...