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Striving For Genetic Perfection Through Genetic Engineering

2535 words - 10 pages

Naturally we humans are imperfect, We can have poor eyesight, we can be overweight,

have a disease that challenges our mobility, our lifespan and even our mental health; however,

science has discovered a method of treatment that can stop all of these disorders before you are

even born. Genetic Engineering is the scientific process of altering certain genes in living

organisms such as plants, animals and humans to achieve a specific beneficial purpose. The pros

of genetic engineering include, cures from many if not every incurable disease known today,

modifying our food sources so they may grow more in abundance, and nurture an overall healthier

generation of children. The cons of genetic engineering include further damaging our

environment, exhibit an unethical social view of human morality, and invoke a new means of

warfare specifically biowarfare. In my opinion, genetic engineering is a step forward in

humanities ever advancing knowledge of our world, it can save lives, make us healthier and is

less dangerous than other scientific techniques.


Genetic Engineering began with the theories of natural selection by Charles Darwin. In his
book “Natural Selection,” Charles Darwin explains “ An individual, therefore, which from having
Ayala 2
some slight profitable variation, was preserved or naturally selected, would in many cases, tend to

transmit the new, through slight modification to its offspring” (214). Darwin then begins to

describe hybridism, which he explains as “ The sterility of two pure species, when first crossed &

that of their hybrid offspring has not always been sufficiently distinct”(389). Darwins theories

were the forefront of many scientists who strived to become more knowledgable of genetics, and

his theories were explanations of genetic variations that lead to new species. In 1890, According
to The Office of NIH History at the National Institutes of Health, Gregor Mendal a European

monk, discovered the basics of heredity or genetic inheritance, while conducting experiments to

common garden pea plants. Mendal’s findings became the Laws of Heredity. Not until 1900, was

when Medal’s research respected and understood. In 1943, Oswald Avery a medical researcher,

discovered the location of DNA while applying techniques present at that time. This discovery by

Avery lead to the birth of modern genetics and molecular biology. In 1977 researchers Mary-Dell

Chilton, Eugene W. Nester and Milton P. Gordon proved that DNA plasmid transferred and

integrated into plant DNA. The experiment allowed a map for genetic engineering. In 1990 The

Human Genome Project began. Essentially , the project was to map out and decode the genetic

information located within the 23 chromosomes of a human being, in which would help advance

the understanding of organisms. In 1996 the world’s first successful cloning of a sheep at Roslin

Institue in Edinburgh,...

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