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Structural And Architectural Design Of A Particular Building Outside Of Western Europe, The Chinese Fortification The Great Wall

1915 words - 8 pages

  The Great Wall which is the one of the greatest wonders in the world, it located the northern China to eastern Shanhaiguan and West to Jiayuguan (Schwartz Daniel 15). In Maas’s Criticisms, the “Racial Bias” states “architectural historians usually ignore non-Western civilizations” (4). The Chinese Great Wall was the most famous historical sites in the world, according to the web pages of the World Heritage List, the Great Wall was selected to be the world culture heritage in 1987. This shows the Great Wall has profound cultural influences in the world. Simaqian who was the most famous historian and litterateur, he stated in his Shih Chi, “If connect all of the Great Wall which is in different dynasties, the length is over 50,000 kilometers” (48), so Chinese usually called the Great Wall as “the Million Meters Wall”, also “one who fails to reach the Great Wall is not a hero” was the famous remark in China. Now, standing on the Great Wall have a panoramic view for all of the beautiful scenery, and feel the strong Chinese cultural atmosphere become a dream for so many tourists. As this reason, it takes about 1,934 million visitors come to the Great Wall every year (T.L. Chancellor 1). However, the Great Wall was built for military defense, but the question is how does Chinese built these huge fortifications in 2,000 years ago, and what is the structure built that help Chinese won the defensive warfare in the ancient times over and over. As a matter of fact, the Great Wall was the work achievement of million labors, and the Great Wall was effective defense invade from foreigner as it creates “a boundary between China and other countries at vulnerable locations” (William Lindesay 7). Overall, not only the Great Wall become to be the most symbolic building in China, but also the structure and architectural design embodies the Chinese wisdom.
  In 6,000 years ago, “Chinese dig ditches around their village to defend themselves against wild animal attacks. The ditches were the rudiment of the great wall” (Chenji 7). According to The Great Wall, the first Great Wall was built in 2,000 years ago, also William Lindesay state “in history, there have been three sub-continental-scale Great Walls, built during the Qin (221 - 206 BC), Han (206 BC - AD 220), and Ming (1368-1644) dynasties” (16):
  The Warring States Great Wall (see Fig. 1.)- arrording to The Great Wall, in the seventh century B.C. (Chinese called this period “Warring States Period”), Chu state was begun to built the Great Wall which is the first wall in Chinese ancient times, and then “other vassal state began to
built their own wall as the war was enlarged” (20).
However, these walls were not connected.
  The Qin Dynasty Great Wall (see Fig. 2.) - according to The Great Wall, after Qin unified six States, the first emperor of Qin named Chi’sin Shih Huang-ti, he dispatched Mentian who was the highest-ranking military officer to connect every state’s walls, named “Wanli Great Wall”(21). “It...

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