The dental fear and anxiety is an emotional distress condition that may lead to poor oral health in children, adolescents and adults. Researches of several studies investigated the origin, influence factors, physical and physiological responses, and types of management and intervention for dental phobia through various sources. Qualitative study utilized YouTube to gain insight to the public's perspective of dental fear and anxiety and understand the psychological impact in children and adolescents. Studies from collective literature search through EBSCOhost, Medline, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar databases revealed methods of intervention to help reduce dental anxiety and the avoidance of dental treatments. And a pharmacological study on 5-HT 3 antagonist may guide the way to discover a better anxiolytic that can potentially block the anxiogentic effects in patients with panic disorder and social phobia including dental fear and anxiety.
The Studies of Dental Fear and Anxiety in Children, Adolescents, and Adults
Generally, when people experience emotional distress such as fear from any circumstances our bodies will activate the fight or flight response to cope with the specific threat (Gordon, Heimberg, Tellez, & Ismail, 2013). It is likely that after those feelings had been introduced to us, we then developed a sense of worry for potential future threat. As Gordon, Heimberg, Tellez, and Ismail (2013) had established that this feeling of anticipation is what caused the conditioned response in our bodies called anxiety, the concept of phobia can be arrange in various degrees of severity. A closer look of dental fear and anxiety (DFA) study in children and adolescents revealed that anxiety disorder may developed early in life through the influence of parents or peer and self-experience, action of others, and environmental setting (Gao, Hamzah, Yung-Yiu, McGrath, & King, 2013). The phobia of dental procedures or dental fear and anxiety in general can lead to a serious oral health impairment in adulthood due to the postponement and avoidance of dental health services (Gordon, Heimberg, Tellez, & Ismail, 2013). Therefore it is essential to investigate in potential anxiolytic, or drug that may reduce anxiety, such as Ondansetron (McCann, Morgan, Geraci, Slate, Murphy, & Post, 1997), that may beneficial to research for future treatment of dental anxiety.
For instance, McCann, Morgan, Geraci, Slate, Murphy, and Post (1997), studied the effects of Ondansetron on 14 patients, 8 males and 6 females with mean age of 41.7, to determine if the same dosage of this drug that work on antiemesis, chemical agents that prevents nausea and vomiting, can help reduce the anxiety level of panic disorder and social phobia. The study used pentagastrin, a synthetic polypeptide that resembled the naturally occurring peptide, cholecystokinin-4 (CCK-4), that increase with the elevation of anxiety. According to the clinical data discussed in this research, it was...